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Copaiba oil and vegetal tannin as functionalizing agents for açai nanofibril films: valorization of forest wastes from Amazonia

Abstract

The applicability of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) has received attention due to their attractive properties. This study proposes the functionalization of açai CNFs with copaiba oil and vegetal tannins to produce films with potential for packaging. Bio-based films were evaluated by vapor permeability, colorimetry, and mechanical strength. CNFs were produced by mechanical fibrillation, from suspensions of bleached açai fibers and commercial eucalipytus pulp. Moreover, copaiba oil and vegetal tannin were added to the CNFs to produce films/nanopapers by casting from both suspensions with concentrations of 1% (based on CNF dry mass). The bulk densities of the eucalyptus CNF films were higher (1.126–1.171 g cm−3) compared to the açai CNF ones. Films from eucalyptus and açai pulps containing copaiba oil and tannins presented higher Tonset and Tmax, respectively (312 and 370 °C). Films with açaí CNFs functionalized with copaiba oil and tannin showed the lowest permeability value (370 g day−1 m−2). Films produced with eucalyptus pulp, and eucalyptus pulp functionalized with copaiba oil highlighted by superior mechanical strength, achieving 133.8 and 121.4 MPa, respectively. The evaluation of colorimetry showed a greater tendency to yellowing for açai films, especially those functionalized with vegetal tannins. Besides the low cost, functionalized vegetal-based nanomaterials could have attractive properties, with potential for application as some kind of packaging, for transporting basic products, such as breads, flours, or products with low moisture content, enabling efficient utilization of forest wastes.

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Data availability

The datasets supporting the conclusions of this article are included in the article. Besides, the datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Coordenacão de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoa de Nível Superior (CAPES, Brazil), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, finance code 300985/2022-3) for their financial support. Thanks also to the Brazilian Lignocellulosic Composites and Nanocomposites Network (RELIGAR), to the Biomaterials Engineering Graduation Program (PPGBIOMAT-UFLA, Brazil), and to State University of Amapa (UEAP) and Foundation for Research Support of Amapa (FAPEAP) (finance code 0022.0279.1202.0016/2021 - Edital 003/2021 postdoc scholarship). Finally, thanks go to the Laboratory of Electron Microscopy and Analysis of the Ultrastructural Federal University of Lavras, (http://www.prp.ufla.br/labs/microscopiaeletronica/) for the technical support for experiments involving electron microscopy.

Funding

Foundation for Research Support of Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG). Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, finance code 300985/2022-3). State University of Amapa (UEAP) and Foundation for Research Support of Amapa (FAPEAP) (finance code 0022.0279.1202.0016/2021 - Edital 003/2021 postdoc scholarship).

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MVS contributed with the writing of the initial version, review, data collection, and data analysis. LB and MCD were major contributors in writing the manuscript, specifically writing the initial version, review, and editing of the manuscript. MSS and LMM contributed to the search for new raw materials resources and review. TMS, GHDT, and FTAJ contributed with supervision, conceptualization, funding acquisition, and project administration. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Mário Vanoli Scatolino.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Scatolino, M.V., Bufalino, L., Dias, M.C. et al. Copaiba oil and vegetal tannin as functionalizing agents for açai nanofibril films: valorization of forest wastes from Amazonia. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20520-7

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20520-7

Keywords

  • Bio-based material
  • Fibrillated cellulose
  • Brazilian resources
  • Productive chain