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Influence of various additives on stability and phase change characteristics of DI water-GnP-based NFPCM for cold thermal energy storage systems

Abstract

The present work aims to investigate the effects of various additives on the stability of graphene nanoplatelet (GnP)–based nanofluid phase change material (NFPCM) for cold thermal energy storage (CTES). The NFPCMs are prepared by dispersing six different types of surfactants (anionic, cationic, and non-ionic types) in deionized (DI) water at a mass ratio of 1:0.5 GnP to surfactant. NFPCMs can be found to be stable with a suitable surfactant even after 30 days using zeta-potential distribution, UV–vis absorption, visual inspection, and sedimentation tests at low temperature. The maximum enhancement in thermal conductivity of 8.3% and 48.3% is recorded in both liquid and solid states for the NFPCM with gum arabic (GA) respectively. The viscosity was enhanced by the dispersion of non-ionic surfactants, where the anionic surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS)) NFPCM had a 29.9% lower augmentation compared to DI water. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrate that the phase change properties of the NFPCM are significantly affected depending on the surfactant type. The maximum phase change enthalpy is lowered (10.6%) in the Tween 80 NFPCM as compared to the base PCM. The long-term stability with the highest thermal transport property of the NFPCM storage unit integrated with the chiller is capable of achieving environmental pollution remediation by minimising the time it takes to charge the PCM.

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Data availability

The datasets used and analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Abbreviations

h:

Heating

c:

Cooling

k:

Thermal conductivity

S:

Uncertainty

DI:

Deionized

BF:

Base fluid

NF:

Nano fluid

SF:

Surfactant fluid

GA:

Gum arabic

TEM:

Transmission electron microscope

DLS:

Dynamic light scattering

ELS:

Electrophoretic light scattering

PCM:

Phase change material

HTF:

Heat transfer fluid

CMC:

Critical micelle concentration

DSC:

Differential scanning calorimetry

CNT:

Carbon nanotubes

GnP:

Graphene nanoplatelet

SDS:

Sodium dodecyl sulphate

PVP:

Polyvinylpyrrolidone

SDBS:

Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate

CTAB:

Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

CTES:

Cold thermal energy storage

LHTES:

Latent heat thermal energy storage

HRSEM:

High resolution scanning electron microscopy

MWCNT:

Multi-wall carbon nanotubes

NFPCM:

Nanofluid phase change material

NEPCM:

Nano enhanced phase change material

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Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Puducherry Technological University (Erstwhile Pondicherry Engineering College), Puducherry, for the support and encouragement in carrying out this research work. The authors would also like to thank the Department of Mechanical Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Chennai, for providing the facilities (DSC, TEMPOS, and UV-Vis spectrophotometer) to carry out the research work.

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Experimentation, formal analysis, writing—original draft preparation, P. Sundaram; writing—review and editing, P. Sundaram and A. Kalaisselvane; supervision, A. Kalaisselvane.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sundaram Palanichamy.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Responsible Editor: George Z. Kyzas

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Palanichamy, S., Athiimoulam, K. Influence of various additives on stability and phase change characteristics of DI water-GnP-based NFPCM for cold thermal energy storage systems. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29, 66935–66949 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20419-3

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20419-3

Keywords

  • DI water
  • Surfactant
  • Graphene nanoplatelets
  • NFPCM
  • Stability
  • Thermal transport property