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Neem extract–blended nanocellulose derived from jackfruit peel for antibacterial packagings

Abstract

The use of jackfruit peel as a source for natural and fully biodegradable “nanocellulose” (NC) for the production of bioplastics with Azadirachta indica (A. indica) extracts and polyethylene glycol (PEG) for the antibacterial properties is investigated. The characterization of the biocomposite using FT-IR and WXRD was reported. The physicochemical properties including thickness, moisture content, water holding capacity, swelling, porosity, and biodegradability in soil were investigated. The incorporation of A. indica extract revealed an increased shelf life due to the strong antibacterial activity, and these biocomposites were degraded in soil within 60 days after the end use without any harm to the environment. Jackfruit-derived nanocellulose film blended with A. indica extract exhibited strong antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative food spoilage bacteria. Disc diffusion assay, live/dead assay, and CFU analysis confirmed the antibacterial property of the synthesized film. Moreover, the films clearly prevented the biofilm formation in bacteria. Thus, the developed bioplastics can be utilized as appropriate substitutes to food packaging materials and also for biomedical applications such as wound dressings.

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Data availability

This article presents an original research work executed by the authors, so all the data presented are depending on their findings and analysis techniques. The datasets used in this article are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to all researchers that contributed to the data collection required for this study. The authors Reshmy Rajasekharan and Raveendran Sindhu are thankful to the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, for providing the funding through Women Scientist Scheme (WOS-B), vide project grant nos: SR/WOS-B/587/2016 and SR/WOS-B/740/2016 for this research work.

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Contributions

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, and writing original draft, Reshmy Rajasekharan; data collection and analysis, Arun Karthika Bahuleyan; analysis and writing original draft, Aravind Madhavan; literature survey, Eapen Philip; conceptualization, Raveendran Sindhu; revision, Parameswaran Binod; reviewing, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi; and editing, Ashok Pandey. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Reshmy Rajasekharan.

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Highlights

• Jackfruit peel derived nanocellulose (NC) incorporated with neem extract revealed new possibilities for innovative food packagings.

• The physical and biodegradability studies showed remarkable improvements in NC biocomposites compared to pure NC.

• Neem extracts are found to be a cost-effective material for imparting antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities.

Responsible Editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Rajasekharan, R., Bahuleyan, A.K., Madhavan, A. et al. Neem extract–blended nanocellulose derived from jackfruit peel for antibacterial packagings. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20382-z

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20382-z

Keywords

  • Nanocellulose
  • Jackfruit
  • Azadirachta indica
  • Antibacterial
  • Food packaging