Skip to main content


Log in

Multiple health benefits of curcumin and its therapeutic potential

  • Review Article
  • Published:
Environmental Science and Pollution Research Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Turmeric, or Curcuma longa as it is formally named, is a multifunctional plant with numerous names. It was dubbed “the golden spice” and “Indian saffron” not only for its magnificent yellow color, but also for its culinary use. Turmeric has been utilized in traditional medicine since the dawn of mankind. Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, which are all curcuminoids, make up turmeric. Although there have been significant advancements in cancer treatment, cancer death and incidence rates remain high. As a result, there is an increasing interest in discovering more effective and less hazardous cancer treatments. Curcumin is being researched for its anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-metabolic syndrome, neuroprotective, and antibacterial properties. Turmeric has long been used as a home remedy for coughs, sore throats, and other respiratory problems. As a result, turmeric and its compounds have the potential to be used in modern medicine to cure a variety of diseases. In this current review, we highlighted therapeutic potential of curcumin and its multiple health benefits on various diseases.

Graphical abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Similar content being viewed by others

Data availability

Not applicable


  • Abd El‐Hack ME, El‐Saadony MT, Swelum AA, Arif M, Abo Ghanima MM, Shukry M, Noreldin A, Taha AE, El‐Tarabily KA (2021) Curcumin, the active substance of turmeric: its effects on health and ways to improve its bioavailability. J Sci Food Agric 101(14):5747–5762

  • Adeola HA, Bano A, Vats R, Vashishtha A, Verma D, Kaushik D, Mittal V, Rahman MH, Najda A, Albadrani GM, Sayed AA (2021). Bioactive compounds and their libraries: an insight into prospective phytotherapeutics approach for oral mucocutaneous cancers. Biomed Pharmacother 141:111809

  • Aggarwal BB, Harikumar KB (2009) Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin, the anti-inflammatory agent, against neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 41(1):40–59

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Akter R, Najda A, Rahman M, Shah M, Wesołowska S, Mubin S, Bibi P, Saeeda S (2021a) Potential role of Natural products to combat radiotherapy and their future perspectives. Molecules 26(19):5997

  • Akter R, Rahman H, Behl T, Chowdhury MA, Manirujjaman M, Bulbul IJ, Elshenaw SE, Tit DM, Bungau S (2021b) Prospective role of polyphenolic compounds in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 20(5):430–450

  • Akter R, Rahman M, Kaushik D, Mittal V, Uivarosan D, Nechifor AC, Behl T, Karthika C, Stoicescu M, Munteanu MA, Bustea C (2021c) Chemo-Preventive Action of Resveratrol: Suppression of p53—A molecular targeting approach. Molecules 26(17):5325

  • Alfonso-Moreno V, López-Serrano A, Moreno-Osset E (2017) Chemoprevention of polyp recurrence with curcumin followed by silibinin in a case of multiple colorectal adenomas. Rev Esp Enferm Dig 109(12):875–875

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Alhalmi A, Beg S, Kohli K, Waris M, Singh T (2021) Nanotechnology based approach for hepatocellular carcinoma targeting. Curr Drug Targets 22(7):779–792

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Allegra A, Innao V, Russo S, Gerace D, Alonci A, Musolino C (2017) Anticancer activity of curcumin and its analogues: preclinical and clinical studies. Cancer Investig 35(1):1–22

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Allegri P, Mastromarino A, Neri PJCO (2010) Management of chronic anterior uveitis relapses: efficacy of oral phospholipidic curcumin treatment. Long-Term Follow-up Clin Ophthalmol 4:1201

    Google Scholar 

  • Alsamydai A and Jaber N (2018) Pharmacological aspects of curcumin. Int J Pharm 5(6):313–326

  • Amalraj A, Varma K, Jacob J, Divya C, Kunnumakkara AB, Stohs SJ, Gopi S (2017) A novel highly bioavailable curcumin formulation improves symptoms and diagnostic indicators in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-dose, three-arm, and parallel-group study. J Med Food 20(10):1022–1030

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson AM, Mitchell MS, Mohan RS (2000) Isolation of curcumin from turmeric. J Chem Educ 77(3):359

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Aoki H, Takada Y, Kondo S, Sawaya R, Aggarwal BB, Kondo Y (2007) Evidence that curcumin suppresses the growth of malignant gliomas in vitro and in vivo through induction of autophagy: role of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways. Mol Pharmacol 72(1):29–39

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Asher GN, Xie Y, Moaddel R, Sanghvi M, Dossou KS, Kashuba AD, Sandler RS, Hawke RL (2017) Randomized pharmacokinetic crossover study comparing 2 curcumin preparations in plasma and rectal tissue of healthy human volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 57(2):185–193

  • Bajgai J, Kim C-S, Rahman M, Jeong E-S, Jang H-Y, Kim K-E, . . . Lee M (2022) Effects of alkaline-reduced water on gastrointestinal diseases. Processes 10(1): 87

  • Balasubramanian S, Eckert RL (2007) Curcumin suppresses AP1 transcription factor-dependent differentiation and activates apoptosis in human epidermal keratinocytes. J Biol Chem 282(9):6707–6715

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Banez MJ, Geluz MI, Chandra A, Hamdan T, Biswas OS, Bryan NS, Von Schwarz ER (2020) A systemic review on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol, curcumin, and dietary nitric oxide supplementation on human cardiovascular health. Nutr Res 78:11–26

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Batra H, Pawar S, Bahl D (2019) Curcumin in combination with anti-cancer drugs: a nanomedicine review. Pharmacol Res 139:91–105

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Betts JW, Wareham DW (2014) In vitro activity of curcumin in combination with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) versus multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. BMC Microbiol 14(1):1–5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bhattacharya T, Dey PS, Akter R, Kabir MT, Rahman MH, Rauf A (2021) Effect of natural leaf extracts as phytomedicine in curing geriatrics. Exp Gerontol 150:111352

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bhattacharya T, Dutta S, Akter R, Rahman M, Karthika C, Nagaswarupa HP, Murthy HC, Fratila O, Brata R, Bungau S (2021b) Role of phytonutrients in nutrigenetics and nutrigenomic perspective in curing breast cancer. Biomolecules 11(8):1176

  • Bhattacharya T, Maishu SP, Akter R, Rahman MH, Akhtar MF, Saleem A, . . . Abdel-Daim MM (2021c). A review on natural sources derived protein nanoparticles as anticancer agents. Curr Top Med Chem 21(12):1014–1026

  • Cheng AL, Hsu CH, Lin JK, Hsu MM, Ho YF, Shen TS, Ko JY, Lin JT, Lin BR, Ming-Shiang W, Yu HS, Jee SH, Chen GS, Chen TM, Chen CA, Lai MK, Pu YS, Pan MH, Wang YJ, Tsai CC, Hsieh CY (2001) Phase I clinical trial of curcumin, a chemopreventive agent, in patients with high-risk or pre-malignant lesions. Anticancer Res 21(4B):2895–2900

  • Chereddy KK, Coco R, Memvanga PB, Ucakar B, des Rieux A, Vandermeulen G, Préat V (2013) Combined effect of PLGA and curcumin on wound healing activity. J Control Release 171(2):208–215

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chopra H, Dey PS, Das D, Bhattacharya T, Shah M, Mubin S, Maishu SP, Akter R, Rahman M, Karthika C, Murad W (2021a) Curcumin nanoparticles as promising therapeutic agents for drug targets. Molecules 26(16): 4998

  • Damiri F, Kommineni N, Ebhodaghe SO, Bulusu R, Sainaga Jyothi VG, Sayed AA, Awaji AA, Germoush MO, Al-Malky HS, Nasrullah MZ, Rahman MH, Nasrullah MZ (2022). Microneedle-based natural polysaccharide for drug delivery systems (DDS): progress and challenges. Pharmaceuticals 15(2):190

  • Darvesh AS, Carroll RT, Bishayee A, Novotny NA, Geldenhuys WJ and Van der Schyf CJ (2012) Curcumin and neurodegenerative diseases: a perspective. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 21(8):1123–1140

  • Dei Cas M, Ghidoni R (2019) Dietary Curcumin: correlation between bioavailability and health potential 11(9): 2147

  • Doggui S, Sahni JK, Arseneault M, Dao L and Ramassamy C (2012) Neuronal uptake and neuroprotective effect of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles on the human SK-N-SH cell line. J Alzheimer’s Dis 30(2):377–392

  • Dourado D, Freire DT, Pereira DT, Amaral-Machado L, Alencar ÉN, de Barros ALB, Egito ES (2021) Will curcumin nanosystems be the next promising antiviral alternatives in COVID-19 treatment trials? Biomed Pharmacother 139:111578

  • El-Desoky GE, Wabaidur SM, AlOthman ZA, Habila MA (2020) Regulatory role of nano-curcumin against tartrazine-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis-related genes expression, and genotoxicity in rats. Molecules 25(24):5801

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • El-Sayed A, Aleya L, Kamel M (2021) Microbiota’s role in health and diseases. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 28(28):36967–36983

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • El-Sayed NM, Ismail KA, Ahmed SA, Hetta MH (2012) In vitro amoebicidal activity of ethanol extracts of Arachis hypogaea L., Curcuma longa L. and Pancratium maritimum L. on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts. Parasitol Res 110(5):1985–1992

  • Faixová D, Hrčková G, Kubašková TM and Mudroňová D (2021) Antiparasitic effects of selected isoflavones on flatworms. Helminthologia 58(1):1–6

  • Farzaei MH, Zobeiri M, Parvizi F, El-Senduny FF, Marmouzi I, Coy-Barrera E, Naseri R, Nabavi SM, Rahimi R, Abdollahi M (2018) Curcumin in liver diseases: a systematic review of the cellular mechanisms of oxidative stress and clinical perspective. Nutrients 10(7):855

  • Fatima M, Iqubal MK, Iqubal A, Kaur H, Gilani SJ, Rahman MH, Ahmadi A, Rizwanullah M (2022) Current insight into the therapeutic potential of phytocompounds and their nanoparticle-based systems for effective management of lung cancer. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 22(4):668–686

  • Ferguson JJ, Stojanovski E, MacDonald-Wicks L, Garg ML (2018) Curcumin potentiates cholesterol-lowering effects of phytosterols in hypercholesterolaemic individuals. A randomised controlled trial. Metabolism 82:22–35

  • Ferguson JJ, Wolska A, Remaley AT, Stojanovski E, MacDonald-Wicks L, Garg ML (2019) Bread enriched with phytosterols with or without curcumin modulates lipoprotein profiles in hypercholesterolaemic individuals. A randomised controlled trial. Food & Function 10(5):2515–2527

  • Fried EI, Von Stockert S, Haslbeck J, Lamers F, Schoevers R, Penninx B (2020) Using network analysis to examine links between individual depressive symptoms, inflammatory markers, and covariates. Psychol Med 50(16):2682–2690

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fu W, Zhuang W, Zhou S, Wang X (2015) Plant-derived neuroprotective agents in Parkinson’s disease. Am J Transl Res 7(7):1189

    Google Scholar 

  • Ganjali S, Sahebkar A, Mahdipour E, Jamialahmadi K, Torabi S, Akhlaghi S, Ferns G, Parizadeh SM, Ghayour-Mobarhan M (2014) Investigation of the effects of curcumin on serum cytokines in obese individuals: a randomized controlled trial. Sci World J 2014

  • Gao Y, Li Z, Sun M, Guo C, Yu A, Xi Y, Cui J, Lou H, Zhai G (2011) Preparation and characterization of intravenously injectable curcumin nanosuspension. Drug Deliv 18(2):131–142

  • Garcea G, Berry DP, Jones DJ, Singh R, Dennison AR, Farmer PB, Sharma RA, Steward WP, Gescher AJ (2005) Consumption of the putative chemopreventive agent curcumin by cancer patients: assessment of curcumin levels in the colorectum and their pharmacodynamic consequences. 14(1):120–125

  • Gorgani L, Mohammadi M, Najafpour GD, Nikzad M (2017) Piperine—the bioactive compound of black pepper: from isolation to medicinal formulations. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 16(1):124–140

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Goyal A, Sharma A, Kaur J, Kumari S, Garg M, Sindhu RK, . . . Najda A (2022). Bioactive-based cosmeceuticals: an update on emerging trends. Molecules 27(3): 828

  • Grewal AK, Singh TG, Sharma D, Sharma V, Singh M, Rahman M H, Najda A, Walasek-Janusz M, Kamel M, Albadrani GM, Akhtar MF (2021) Mechanistic insights and perspectives involved in neuroprotective action of quercetin. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 140:111729

  • Gupta SC, Patchva S, Aggarwal BB (2013) Therapeutic roles of curcumin: lessons learned from clinical trials. AAPS J 15(1):195–218

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hashem S, Nisar S, Sageena G, Macha MA, Yadav SK, Krishnankutty R, Uddin S, Haris M, Bhat AA (2021) Therapeutic effects of curcumol in several diseases; an overview. Nutr Cancer 73(2): 181–195

  • He Y-F, Li B-Z, Li Z, Liu P, Wang Y, Tang Q, Ding J, Jia Y, Chen Z, Li L, Sun Y (2011) Tet-mediated formation of 5-carboxylcytosine and its excision by TDG in mammalian DNA. Science 333(6047):1303–1307

  • Heo J-R, Lee G-A, Kim G-S, Hwang K-A and Choi K-C (2018) Phytochemical-induced reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis and differentiation in malignant melanoma cells. Phytomedicine 39:100–110

  • Herrera-Calderon O, Rahman MH, Pena-Rojas G and Andia-Ayme V (2020) Dodonaea viscosa Jacq: a medicinal plant with cytotoxic effect on colon cancer cell line (HT-29). J Pure Appl Microbiol 14(3):1927–1934

  • Hewlings SJ, Kalman DS (2017) Curcumin: a review of its effects on human health. Foods 6(10):92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hong W, Gao Y, Lou B, Ying S, Wu W, Ji X, Yu N, Jiao Y, Wang H, Zhou X, Li A (2021) Curcumin-loaded hybrid nanoparticles: microchannel-based preparation and antitumor activity in a mouse model. Int J Nanomedicine 16:4147

  • Hossain MF, Hasana S, Al Mamun A, Uddin MS, Wahed MII, Sarker S, Behl T, Ullah I, Begum Y, Bulbul IJ, Amran M (2020) COVID-19 outbreak: pathogenesis, current therapies, and potentials for future management. Front Pharmacol:1590

  • Irving GR, Howells LM, Sale S, Kralj-Hans I, Atkin WS, Clark SK, Britton RG, Jones DJ, Scott EN, Berry DP, Hemingway D (2013) Prolonged biologically active colonic tissue levels of curcumin achieved after oral administration—a clinical pilot study including assessment of patient acceptability. Cancer Prev Res 6(2):119–128

  • Ishaq A, Gulzar H, Hassan A, Kamran M, Riaz M, Parveen A, Chattha MS, Walayat N, Fatima S, Afzal S, Fahad S (2021) Ameliorative mechanisms of turmeric-extracted curcumin on arsenic (As)-induced biochemical alterations, oxidative damage, and impaired organ functions in rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28(46):66313–66326

  • Kabir M, Rahman M, Akter R, Behl T, Kaushik D, Mittal V, Pandey P, Akhtar MF, Saleem A, Albadrani GM, Kamel M (2021) Potential role of curcumin and its nanoformulations to treat various types of cancers. Biomolecules 11(3):392

  • Kabir MT, Rahman MH, Shah M, Jamiruddin MR, Basak D, Al-Harrasi A, Bhatia S, Ashraf GM, Najda A, El-Kott AF, Mohamed HR (2022) Therapeutic promise of carotenoids as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents in neurodegenerative disorders. Biochem Pharmacol 146:112610

  • Karthika C, Appu AP, Akter R, Rahman M, Tagde P, Ashraf GM, Abdel-Daim MM, Abid A, Bungau S (2022) Potential innovation against Alzheimer’s disorder: a tricomponent combination of natural antioxidants (vitamin E, quercetin, and basil oil) and the development of its intranasal delivery. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29:10950–10965

  • Karthika C, Hari B, Mano V, Radhakrishnan A, Janani S, Akter R, Kaushik D, Rahman MH (2021a) Curcumin as a great contributor for the treatment and mitigation of colorectal cancer. Exp Gerontol 152:111438

  • Karthika C, Hari B, Rahman MH, Akter R, Najda A, Albadrani GM, Sayed AA, Akhtar MF, Abdel-Daim MM (2021b) Multiple strategies with the synergistic approach for addressing colorectal cancer. Biochem Pharmacol 140:111704

  • Kaur D, Behl T, Sehgal A, Singh S, Sharma N, Badavath VN, Hasan MM, Bhatia S, Al-Harassi A, Khan H, Bungau S, Khan H (2021) Unravelling the potential neuroprotective facets of erythropoietin for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Metab Brain Dis 1–16

  • Keshavarzi Z, Shakeri F, Barreto GE, Bibak B, Sathyapalan T and Sahebkar A (2019) Medicinal plants in traumatic brain injury: neuroprotective mechanisms revisited. Biofactors 45(4):517–535

  • Kulkarni S, Akula KK and Deshpande J (2012) Evaluation of antidepressant-like activity of novel water-soluble curcumin formulations and St. John's wort in behavioral paradigms of despair. 89(1-2): 83-90

  • Kuptniratsaikul V, Dajpratham P, Taechaarpornkul W, Buntragulpoontawee M, Lukkanapichonchut P, Chootip C, Saengsuwan J, Tantayakom K, Laongpech S (2014) Efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts compared with ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a multicenter study. Clin Interv Aging 9:451

  • Lal B, Kapoor AK, Agrawal PK, Asthana OP, Srimal RC (2000) Role of curcumin in idiopathic inflammatory orbital pseudotumours. Phytother Res 14(6):443–447

  • Mahady G, Pendland S, Yun G, Lu Z (2002) Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and curcumin inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori, a group 1 carcinogen. Anticancer Res 22(6C):4179–4181

  • Mazumdar R, Rahman M, Rahman M, Chowdhury M, Hossain M, Ahmed M, Gupta P (2016) Phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of Polyalthia suberosa Roxb. Int J Innov Pharm Sci Res 4(7):693–708

  • Mazzolani F and Togni S (2013) Oral administration of a curcumin-phospholipid delivery system for the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy: a 12-month follow-up study. Clin Ophthalmol 7:939

  • Meng R, Wu Z, Xie Q-T, Cheng J-S and Zhang B (2021) Preparation and characterization of zein/carboxymethyl dextrin nanoparticles to encapsulate curcumin: physicochemical stability, antioxidant activity and controlled release properties. Food Chem 340:127893

  • Mohammadi A, Sahebkar A, Iranshahi M, Amini M, Khojasteh R, Ghayour‐Mobarhan M and Ferns GA (2013) Effects of supplementation with curcuminoids on dyslipidemia in obese patients: a randomized crossover trial. Phytotherapy Res 27(3):374–379

  • Motawi TK, Sadik NA, Hamed MA, Ali SA, Khalil WK, Ahmed YR (2020) Potential therapeutic effects of antagonizing adenosine A 2A receptor, curcumin and niacin in rotenone-induced Parkinson’s disease mice model. Mol Cell Biochem 465(1):89–102

  • Mythri RB, Srinivas Bharath MM (2012) Curcumin: a potential neuroprotective agent in Parkinson’s disease. Curr Pharm Des 18(1):91–99

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Naeini MB, Momtazi AA, Jaafari MR, Johnston TP, Barreto G, Banach M and Sahebkar AJ (2019) Antitumor effects of curcumin: a lipid perspective. J Cell Physiol 234(9):14743–14758

  • Nahar PP, Slitt AL and Seeram NP (2015) Anti-inflammatory effects of novel standardized solid lipid curcumin formulations. J Med Food 18(7):786–792

  • Nakagawa Y, Mukai S, Yamada S, Matsuoka M, Tarumi E, Hashimoto T, Tamura C, Imaizumi A, Nishihira J, Nakamura T (2014) Short-term effects of highly-bioavailable curcumin for treating knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective study. J Orthop Sci 19(6):933–939

  • Nelson KM, Dahlin JL, Bisson J, Graham J, Pauli GF and Walters MA (2017) The essential medicinal chemistry of curcumin: miniperspective. J Med Chem 60(5):1620–1637

  • Nieman DC, Cialdella-Kam L, Knab AM, Shanely RA (2012) Influence of red pepper spice and turmeric on inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in overweight females: a metabolomics approach. 67(4):415–421

  • Noce A, Di Lauro M, Di Daniele F, Pietroboni Zaitseva A, Marrone G, Borboni P, Di Daniele N (2021) Natural bioactive compounds useful in clinical management of metabolic syndrome. Nutrients 13(2):630

  • Panahi Y, Alishiri GH, Parvin S, Sahebkar A (2016) Mitigation of systemic oxidative stress by curcuminoids in osteoarthritis: results of a randomized controlled trial. J Diet Suppl 13(2):209–220

  • Panahi Y, Hosseini MS, Khalili N, Naimi E, Majeed M, Sahebkar A (2015) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of curcuminoid-piperine combination in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial and an updated meta-analysis. Clin Nutr 34(6):1101–1108

  • Panchatcharam M, Miriyala S, Gayathri VS, Suguna L (2006) Curcumin improves wound healing by modulating collagen and decreasing reactive oxygen species. Mol Cell Biochem 290(1):87–96

  • Paultre K, Cade W, Hernandez D, Reynolds J, Greif D, Best T (2021) Therapeutic effects of turmeric or curcumin extract on pain and function for individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. BMJ Open Sport Exer Med 7(1):e000935

  • Perumal Samy R, Gopalakrishnakone P (2010) Therapeutic potential of plants as anti-microbials for drug discovery. Evid-based Complement Altern Med 7(3):283–294

  • Pradeep KU, Geervani P and Eggum B (1993) Common Indian spices: nutrient composition, consumption and contribution to dietary value. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 44(2):137–148

  • Priyadarsini KI, Maity DK, Naik G, Kumar MS, Unnikrishnan M, Satav J, Mohan H (2003) Role of phenolic OH and methylene hydrogen on the free radical reactions and antioxidant activity of curcumin. Free Radic Biol Med 35(5):475–484

  • Priyadarsini KI (2014) The chemistry of curcumin: from extraction to therapeutic agent. Molecules 19(12):20091–20112

  • Purpura M, Lowery RP, Wilson JM, Mannan H, Münch G, Razmovski-Naumovski V (2018) Analysis of different innovative formulations of curcumin for improved relative oral bioavailability in human subjects. Eur J Nutr 57(3):929–938

  • Rahimnia A-R, Panahi Y, Alishiri G, Sharafi M, Sahebkar A (2015) Impact of supplementation with curcuminoids on systemic inflammation in patients with knee osteoarthritis: findings from a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Drug Res 65(10):521–525

  • Rahman M, Akter R, Bhattacharya T, Abdel-Daim MM, Alkahtani S, Arafah MW, Al-Johani NS, Alhoshani NM, Alkeraishan N, Alhenaky A, Abd‐Elkader OH, Alhenaky A (2020) Resveratrol and neuroprotection: impact and its therapeutic potential in Alzheimer's disease. Front Pharmacol 11:2272

  • Rahman M, Bajgai J, Fadriquela A, Sharma S, Trinh Thi T, Akter R, Goh SH, Kim CS, Lee KJ (2021a) Redox effects of molecular hydrogen and its therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Processes 9(2):308

  • Rahman M, Hannan MA, Dash R, Rahman M, Islam R, Uddin M J, Sohag AA, Rhim H (2021b) Phytochemicals as a complement to cancer chemotherapy: pharmacological modulation of autophagy-apoptosis pathway. Front Pharmacol 12:718

  • Rahmani S, Asgary S, Askari G, Keshvari M, Hatamipour M, Feizi A and Sahebkar A (2016) Treatment of non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease with curcumin: a randomized placebo‐controlled trial. Phytotherapy Res 30(9):1540-1548

  • Rajasekar AJ (2015) Facile synthesis of curcumin nanocrystals and validation of its antioxidant activity against circulatory toxicity in Wistar rats. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 15(6):4119–4125

  • Rong X, Jiang L, Qu M, Liu Z (2021) Enhancing therapeutic efficacy of donepezil by combined therapy: a comprehensive review. Curr Pharm Des 27(3):332–344

  • Roy M, Giri A (2021a) Potential use of curcumin to combat COVID-19. Immunity Boosting Functional Foods to Combat COVID-19, p 37–46

  • Roy S, Rhim J-W (2021b) Antioxidant and antimicrobial poly (vinyl alcohol)-based films incorporated with grapefruit seed extract and curcumin. J Environ Chem Eng 9(1):104694

  • Rubagotti S, Croci S, Ferrari E, Orteca G, Iori M, Capponi PC, Versari A, Asti M (2017) Uptake of Ga-curcumin derivatives in different cancer cell lines: toward the development of new potential 68Ga-labelled curcuminoids-based radiotracers for tumour imaging. J Inorg Biochem 173:113–119

  • Sahebkar A, Mohammadi A, Atabati A, Rahiman S, Tavallaie S, Iranshahi M, Akhlaghi S, Ferns GA, Ghayour‐Mobarhan M (2013) Curcuminoids modulate pro‐oxidant–antioxidant balance but not the immune response to heat shock protein 27 and oxidized LDL in obese individuals. Phytotherapy Res 27(12):1883–1888

  • Sahebkar A (2014) Curcuminoids for the management of hypertriglyceridaemia. 11(2):123-123

  • Sahoo JP, Behera L, Praveena J, Sawant S, Mishra A, Sharma SS, Ghosh L, Mishra AP, Sahoo AR, Pradhan P, Sahu S (2021) The golden spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its feasible benefits in prospering human health—a review. Am J plant Sci 12(03):455

  • Sahu P, Nema RK (2021) Bioenhancer: an agent for increasing bioavailability. World J Pharm Res 10(6):613–634

  • Sanidad, KZ, Sukamtoh E, Xiao H, McClements DJ, Zhang G (2019) Curcumin: recent advances in the development of strategies to improve oral bioavailability. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 10:597–617

  • Santos-Parker JR, Strahler TR, Bassett CJ, Bispham NZ, Chonchol MB, Seals DR (2017) Curcumin supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress. Aging (Albany NY) 9(1):187

  • Sethy C, Kundu CN (2021) 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) resistance and the new strategy to enhance the sensitivity against cancer: Implication of DNA repair inhibition. Biomed Pharmacother 137:111285

  • Shah SAA, Bungau S, Si Y, Xu H, Rahman M, Behl T, Gitea D, Pavel FM, Corb Aron RA, Pasca B, Nemeth S (2020) Chemically diverse and biologically active secondary metabolites from marine Phylum chlorophyta. Marine Drugs 18(10):493

  • Shams ul Hassan S, Ishaq M, Zhang W-d, Jin H-Z (2021) An overview of the mechanisms of marine fungi-derived anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor agents and their novel role in drug targeting. Curr Pharm Des 27(22):2605–2614

  • Sharma A, Khan H, Singh TG, Grewal AK, Najda A, Kawecka-Radomska M, Kamel M, Altyar AE, Del-Daim MM (2021) Pharmacological modulation of ubiquitin-proteasome pathways in oncogenic signaling. Int J Mol Sci 22(21):11971

  • Sharma RA, Steward WP, Gescher AJ (2007) Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of curcumin. In: The molecular targets and therapeutic uses of curcumin in health and disease. pp 453–470

  • Shep D, Khanwelkar C, Gade P and Karad S (2019) Safety and efficacy of curcumin versus diclofenac in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized open-label parallel-arm study. Trials 20(1):1–11

  • Shin Y-A, Suk M-H, Jang H-S, Choi H-J (2017) Short-term effects of Theracurmin dose and exercise type on pain, walking ability, and muscle function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Exerc Rehabil 13(6):684

  • Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A (2014) Cancer statistics, 2014. 64(1): 9–29

  • Silvestro S, Sindona C, Bramanti P, Mazzon E (2021) A state of the art of antioxidant properties of curcuminoids in neurodegenerative diseases. 22(6):3168

  • Singletary K (2020) Turmeric: Potential Health Benefits. Nutr Sci 55(1):45–56

  • Slavova‐Kazakova A, Angelova S, Fabbri D, Antonietta Dettori M, Kancheva VD, Delogu G (2021) Antioxidant properties of novel curcumin analogues: a combined experimental and computational study. J Food Biochem 45(1):e13584

  • Soleimani V, Sahebkar A, Hosseinzadeh H (2018) Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its major constituent (curcumin) as nontoxic and safe substances. Phytotherapy Res 32(6):985–995

  • Srivastava S, Saksena AK, Khattri S, Kumar S, Dagur RS (2016) Curcuma longa extract reduces inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in osteoarthritis of knee: a four-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Inflammopharmacology 24(6):377–388

  • Storka A, Vcelar B, Klickovic U, Gouya G, Weisshaar S, Aschauer S, Bolger G, Helson L, Woltz M (2015) Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of liposomal curcumin (Lipocurc™) in healthy humans. Int J Clin Pharmacol Therapeut 53:54–65

  • Subramani PA, Panati K, Lebaka VR, Reddy DD, Narala VR (2017) Nanostructures for curcumin delivery: possibilities and challenges. In Nano-and Microscale Drug Delivery Systems (pp. 393–418): Elsevier

  • Sumeet G, Rachna K, Samrat C, Ipshita C, Vikas J, Manu S (2018) Anti inflammatory and anti arthritic activity of different milk based formulation of curcumin in rat model. Current Drug Delivery 15(2):205–214

  • Tagde P, Tagde P, Islam F, Tagde S, Shah M, Hussain ZD, Rahman M, Najda A, Alanazi IS, Germoush MO (2021a) The multifaceted role of curcumin in advanced nanocurcumin form in the treatment and management of chronic disorders. Molecules 26(23):7109

  • Tagde P, Tagde P, Tagde S, Bhattacharya T, Garg V, Akter R, . . . (2021b) Natural bioactive molecules: an alternative approach to the treatment and control of glioblastoma multiforme. Biomed Pharmacother 141:111928

  • Tagde P, Tagde S, Bhattacharya T, Akter R, Rahman M (2021c) Multifaceted effects of intermittent fasting in the treatment and prevention of diabetes, cancer and obesity or other chronic diseases. Curr Diabetes Rev e131221198789

  • Tagde P, Tagde S, Tagde P, Bhattacharya T, Monzur SM, Rahman M, Otrisal P, Behl T, Abdel-Daim MM, Aleya L, Bungau S (2021d) Nutraceuticals and herbs in reducing the risk and improving the treatment of COVID-19 by targeting SARS-CoV-2. Biomedicines 9(9):1266

  • Talebi M, Talebi M, Farkhondeh T, Mishra G, İlgün S, Samarghandian S (2021) New insights into the role of the Nrf2 signaling pathway in green tea catechin applications. Phytotherapy Res 35(6):3078–3112

  • Thota RN, Dias CB, Abbott KA, Acharya SH, Garg ML (2018). Curcumin alleviates postprandial glycaemic response in healthy subjects: a cross-over, randomized controlled study. 8(1): 1–8

  • Trujillo J, Chirino YI, Molina-Jijón E, Andérica-Romero AC, Tapia E, Pedraza-Chaverrí J (2013) Renoprotective effect of the antioxidant curcumin: recent findings. Redox Biol 1(1):448–456

  • Vareed SK, Kakarala M, Ruffin MT, Crowell JA, Normolle DP, Djuric Z, Brenner DE (2008) Pharmacokinetics of curcumin conjugate metabolites in healthy human subjects. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 17(6):1411–1417

  • Waghmare P, Chaudhari A, Karhadkar V, Jamkhande AJ (2011) Comparative evaluation of turmeric and chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in prevention of plaque formation and gingivitis: a clinical and microbiological study. J Contemp Dent Pract 12(4):221–224

  • Wang R, Li Y-H, Xu Y, Li Y-B, Wu H-L, Guo H, Zhang JZ, Zhang JJ, Pan XY, Li XJ (2010) Curcumin produces neuroprotective effects via activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor/TrkB-dependent MAPK and PI-3K cascades in rodent cortical neurons. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 34(1):147–153

  • Wang Z, Mu W, Li P, Liu G, Yang J (2021) Anti-inflammatory activity of ortho-trifluoromethoxy-substituted 4-piperidione-containing mono-carbonyl curcumin derivatives in vitro and in vivo. Eur J Pharm Sci 160:105756

  • Wise R, Hart T, Cars O, Streulens M, Helmuth R, Huovinen P, Sprenger M (1998). Antimicrobial resistance. British Med J Publ Group 317(7159):609–610

  • Xu X-Y, Meng X, Li S, Gan R-Y, Li Y, Li H-B (2018) Bioactivity, health benefits, and related molecular mechanisms of curcumin: current progress, challenges, and perspectives. Nutrients 10(10):1553

  • Yao M, Xiao H, McClements DJ (2014) Delivery of lipophilic bioactives: assembly, disassembly, and reassembly of lipid nanoparticles. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 5:53–81

  • Zhang Q, Li D, Liu Y, Wang H, Zhang C, Huang H, He Y, Chen X, Du Z, Zheng X (2016) Potential anticancer activity of curcumin analogs containing sulfone on human cancer cells. Arch Biol Sci 68(1):125–133

  • Zorofchian Moghadamtousi S, Abdul Kadir H, Hassandarvish P, Tajik H, Abubakar S, Zandi K (2014) A review on antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity of curcumin. Biomed Res Int 2014

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



Muddaser Shah: writing draft, Waheed Murad: reviewing and editing, Sidra Mubin and Obaid Ullah: reviewing and editing, Najeeb Ur Rehman: conceptualization, Md. Habibur Rahman: reviewing and editing and supervision.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Najeeb Ur Rehman.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval

Not applicable

Consent to participate

Not applicable

Consent for publication

Not applicable

Competing interest

Not applicable

Additional information

Responsible Editor: Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim

Publisher's note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Shah, M., Murad, W., Mubin, S. et al. Multiple health benefits of curcumin and its therapeutic potential. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29, 43732–43744 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: