Skip to main content

IoT technologies in smart environment: security issues and future enhancements

Abstract

IoT plays an important role in the overall development and advancement of the country as it is the key ingredient for the development of the smart environment. IoT is a network of physical objects, devices that contain embedded technologies such as sensors, controllers, etc., which can sense, communicate, and interact with the system to carry out desired operations. The advancement in technology over the past years has provided a new era for computational processing and sensing to facilitate the vision of a smart environment. Researchers have put several efforts to use IoT to facilitate our lives. This paper purposes on an integrated smart environment using IoT. Various sectors such as agriculture, transportation, garbage collection, security issues, sensors, etc. are discussed along with the key technologies including RFID, IP, EPC, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and ZigBee. This paper will provide a complete insight into the one who wants to research in the field of IoT. It also highlights the unprecedented opportunities brought by IoT-based technologies to human life. Finally, we have discussed the future enhancements in IoT.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Availability of data and material

All relevant data and material are presented in the main paper.

References

  • Ali Tourani AS (2017) Challenges of Video-Based Vehicle Detection and Tracking in Intelligent Transportation Systems. 2nd National Conference on Soft Computing, Guilan, p 8

    Google Scholar 

  • Ali SSM, George B, Vanajakshi L, Jayashankar VJKV and Kumar VJ, (2011). A Multiple Inductive Loop Vehicle Detection System for Heterogeneous and Lane-Less Traffic. Instrum Meas

  • Al-Qaseemi SA (2016). IoT architecture challenges and issues: Lack of standardization.

  • Alshaer J (2018). Challenges of Internet of Things and Big Data Integration.

  • Amri Y, Setiawan MA (2018) Improving Smart Home Concept with the Internet of Things Concept Using RaspberryPi and NodeMCU. Mater Sci Eng 325(11):012021

    Google Scholar 

  • Aniley AA, Kumar SKN, Kumar A (2017) Soil temperature Sensors in Agriculture and the role of Nanomaterials in Temperature Sensors Preparation. International Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing Science 7(2):363–372

  • Awan SH, Ahmed S, Nawaz A, Sulaiman S, Zaman K, Ali MY, Najam Z, Imran S (2020) BlockChain with IoT, an Emergent Routing Scheme for Smart Agriculture. In J Adv Comp Sci Appl 11(4):420–429

    Google Scholar 

  • Bansal K, Mittal K, Ahuja G, Singh A and Gill SS, (2020). DeepBus: Machine learning based real time pothole detection system for smart transportation using IoT. Internet Technol Lett

  • Bansod B, Singh R, Thakur R, Singhal G (2017) A comparison between satellite-based and drone based remote sensing technology to achieve sustainable development: a review. Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development (JAEID) 111(2):383–407

    Google Scholar 

  • Baoan L, Yu J (2011) Research and application on the smart home based on component technologies and Internet of Things. Proc Eng 6

  • Bennett J (2017). Healthcare in the Smart Home: A Study of Past, Present and Future.

  • Burhanuddin MA (2017). Internet of Things Architecture: Current Challenges and Future Direction.

  • Buyya R, Yeo CS, Venugopal S, Broberg J, Brandic I (2009) Cloud computing and emerging IT platforms: Vision, hype, and reality for delivering computing as the 5th utility. Futur Gener Comput Syst 25(6):599–616

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cancar L, Sanz D, Vega JH, Cerro J, Barrientos A (2014) Precision humidity and temperature measuring in farming using newer ground mobile robots. In: Armada, M., Sanfeliu A, Ferre M (eds) ROBOT2013: First Iberian Robotics Conference. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 252. Springer, Cham https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-03413-3_32

  • Channe H, Kothari S, Kadam D (2015) Multidisciplinary model for smart agriculture using internet-of-things (IoT), Sensors, Cloud-Computing, Mobile-Computing & Big- Data Analysis. Int.J.Computer Technology & Applications 6(3):374–382

  • Chaitanya D, Suhasini YA, Nagarjun G (2017) Home Appliances Control Based on Hand Motion. Int J Emerg Technol Eng Res 5:110–114

    Google Scholar 

  • Chan M, Campo E, Estève D and Fourniols JY, (2009). Smart homes — Current features and future perspectives. Maturitas 7

  • Chin K (2017). Smart city in a box: a strategic playbook for igniting civic innovation 1-7

  • Cole RJ. (1970). The application of the “triangulation” method to the purification of Nosema spores from insect tissues. Invertebr Pathol

  • Dey S, Abraham A, Bandyopadhyay B, & Sanyal S (2010). Data hiding techniques using prime and natural numbers

  • Dipali Bodke VG (2018) Smart Home Automation System using Mobile Application. Int Res J Eng Technol 6:1093–1098

    Google Scholar 

  • Farooq MS, Riaz S, Abid A, Abid K, Naeem MA (2019) A survey on the role of IoT in agriculture for the implementation of smart farming. IEEE Access 7:1–1. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2949703

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Federal Trade Commission. (2015). Internet of things privacy & security in a connected world

  • Fong S (2011) Integrating RFID technology in Internet applications. In: Recent Trends in Wireless and Mobile Networks. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 207–216

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Gondchawar N, Kawitkar RS (2016). IoT based Smart Agriculture. Int J Adv Res Comp Commun Eng

  • Gunge VS, Yalagi PS (2016) Smart Home Automation: A Literature Review. Int J Comput Appl 975:8887–8891

    Google Scholar 

  • Herrera-Quintero LF, Banse K, Vega-Alfonso J, Venegas-Sanchez A (2016) Smart ITS sensor for the transportation planning using the IoT and Bigdata approaches to produce ITS cloud services. 2016 8th Euro American Conference on Telematics and Information Systems (EATIS), Cartagena

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Herrera-Quintero LF, Vega-Alfonso JC, Banse KBA and Zambrano EC (2018). Smart ITS Sensor for the Transportation Planning Based on IoT Approaches Using Serverless and Microservices Architecture. IEEE Intelligent Transp Syst Mag 11.

  • Hong I, Park S, Lee B, Lee J, Jeong, D (2014). IoT-Based Smart Garbage System for Efficient Food Waste Management. Recent Advances on Internet of Things.

  • Humayun M, Jhanjhi NZ, Hamid B and Ahmed G. (2020). Emerging Smart Logistics and Transportation Using IoT and Blockchain. Internet of Things.

  • Jasti S, Sagar RK (2018) Analysis of smart city transportation using IoT. 2nd International Conference on Inventive Systems and Control. 268–273 https://doi.org/10.1109/ICISC.2018.8399077

  • Jha B (2015). Internet of things: a game changer for insurance [Blog Post].

  • Kanumuri DV (2020). Smart Agriculture Using IoT. Smart Agriculture Using IoT.

  • Khalid Haseeb IU (2020). An Energy Efficient and Secure IoT-Based WSN Framework: An Application to Smart Agriculture. IoT-Based Precision Agric

  • Khan SD and Ullah H(2019). A survey of advances in vision-based vehicle re-identification. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 17.

  • Khan IR, Alam M, Razdan A (2021) Smart Garbage Monitoring System using IoT. Conference: 2nd International Conference on Emerging Trends in Mathematical Sciences & Computing (IEMSC-21), Kolkata

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Khoa TA, Man MM, Nguyen TY, Nguyen V and Nam NH (2019). Smart Agriculture Using IoT Multi-Sensors: A Novel Watering Management System. J Sens Actuator Netw. 2019.

  • Kim M, Nam JH, Jang JW (2014) Implementation of smart car infotainment system including black box and self-diagnosis function. Int J Soft Eng Appl 18:267–274

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Köksal Ö, & Tekinerdogan B (2018). Architecture design approach for IoT-based farm management information systems. Precis Agric 1-33

  • Kumar NS, Vuayalakshmi B, Prarthana RJ, Shankar A (2016) IOT based smart garbage alert system using Arduino UNO. 2016 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON), Singapore

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar SV, Kumaran TS, Kumar AK, Mathapati M (2017) Smart garbage monitoring and clearance system using internet of things. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Technologies and Management for Computing, Communication, Controls, Energy and Materials (ICSTM), Chennai

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Marcia Friesen RD (2015) Bluetooth in Intelligent Transportation Systems: A Survey. Int J Intell Transp Syst Res 11:143–153

    Google Scholar 

  • Misra G, Kumar V, Agarwal A, Agarwal Kabita (2016) Internet of Things (IoT) – A Technological Analysis and Survey on Vision, Concepts, Challenges, Innovation Directions, Technologies, and Applications (An Upcoming or Future Generation Computer Communication System Technology). American Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering 4:23–32. https://doi.org/10.12691/ajeee-4-1-4

  • Mahajan SA, Kokane A, Shewale A, Shinde M, Ingale S (2017) Smart waste management system using IoT." International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research andScience 4(4):93-95

  • Nagalakshmi LRA (2011) Deployment of RFID (radio frequency identification) at Indian academic libraries: issues and best practice. Int J Libr Inform Sci 3(2):34–37

    Google Scholar 

  • Narayanan A, Singh S, & Somasekharan M (2005). Implementing RFID in library: methodologies, advantages and disadvantages. Recent Adv Inform Technol 271.

  • Navghane SS, Killedar MS, & Rohokale VM (2016). IoT Based Smart Garbage and Waste Collection Bin. Int J Adv Res Electron Commun Eng (IJARECE)

  • Nicol A, Langan S, Victor M, Gonsalves J (Eds.) (2015) Water-smart agriculture in East Africa. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE); Kampala, Uganda: Global Water Initiative East Africa (GWI EA). 352p. https://doi.org/10.5337/2015.203

  • Noura, M., Atiquzzaman, M. and Gaedke, M. (2017). nteroperability in internet of things infrastructure: classification, challenges and future work

  • Owusu PK (2020) Smart garbage monitoring system using internet of things. The Middle East Journal (3):74–82

  • O’Brien D (2014). The Internet of things: new threats emerge in a connected world.

  • Pengfei W, Yu Z (2014) Application research of pressure sensing system in agriculture based on SCM. International Conference on Electric Information and Control Engineering 2011:179–182. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEICE.2011.5777421

  • Priya PLV, Harshith NS and Ramesh NVK (2020). Smart Agriculture Monitoring System Using IoT. Int J Sci Res Eng Trends

  • Putra RH, Kusuma FT, Damayanti TN and Ramadan DN (2019). IoT: smart garbage monitoring using android and real time database. Telkomnika

  • Rizwan Majeed NA (2020). An Intelligent, Secure, and Smart Home Automation System. Sci Programm Towards Smart World 2020

  • Saarika PS, Sandhya K, Sudha T (2017) Smart transportation system using IoT. 2017 International Conference On Smart Technologies For Smart Nation (SmartTechCon), Bangaluru

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Saha HN, Auddy S, Pal S (2017), “Waste management using Internet of things (IoT),“Second International Conference On Computing and Communications Technologies (ICCCT’17), IEEE, pp359-363.

  • Samaniego M, Deters R (2016) Management and Internet of things. Proc Comp Sci 94:137–143

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sanyal S, Bhadauria R, & Ghosh C (2009). Secure communication in cognitive radio networks. In Computers and Devices for Communication, 2009. CODEC 2009. 4th International Conference on (pp. 1-4). IEEE

  • Satyakrishna J, Sagar RK (2018) Analysis of smart city transportation using IoT. 2nd International Conference on Inventive Systems and Control 268–273. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICISC.2018.8399077

  • Shaheen S, Martin E, Cohen A, Finson R (2012) Public bikesharing in North America: early operator and user understanding. Mineta Transportation Institute, San Jose

    Google Scholar 

  • Shaheen S, Martin E, Chan N, Cohen A, Pogodzinski M (2014) Public bikesharing in North America during a period of rapid expansion: understanding business models, industry trends and user impacts. Mineta Transportation Institute, San Jose

    Google Scholar 

  • Shaheen S, Cohen A, Zohdy I (2016) Shared mobility: current practices and guiding principles. Department of Transportation, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  • Shen G, & Liu B (2011). The visions, technologies, applications and security issues of Internet of Things. In 2011 International Conference on E-Business and E-Government (ICEE)

  • Shwetav Sharad KK (2020). IOT Based Home Automation Using Smart Switch. 11.

  • Shyam GK, Manvi SS (2017), “Smart waste management using Internet-of-things,“Second International Conference On Computing and Communications Technologies (ICCCT’17), IEEE, pp 199-203

  • Sohag MU, & Podder AK (2020). Smart garbage management system for a sustainable urban life: An IoT based application. Internet of Things.

  • Sudhir Chitnis ND (2016). An Investigative Study for Smart Home Security: Issues, Challenges and Countermeasures. Wireless Sensor Networs, 9.

  • Sujan Fernandes KK (2016) Home Appliances Control Using Android ADK. Int J Comput Technol 3:382–385

    Google Scholar 

  • Thilagavathi N and Rao G (n.d.). Global positioning system in transportation planning. 6.

  • Trivedi AK, Arora R, Kapoor R, Sanyal S, & Sanyal S (2010). A semidistributed reputation based intrusion detection system for mobile adhoc networks

  • Zantalis F, Koulouras G, Karabetsos S, Kandris D (2019) A Review of Machine Learning and IoT in Smart Transportation. Future Internet 11:94

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Department of Information and Communication Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Technology, Pandit Deendayal Energy University, for the permission to publish this research.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

All the authors make substantial contribution in this manuscript. HM, JK, KN, and MS participated in drafting the manuscript. HM, JK, and KN wrote the main manuscript; all the authors discussed the results and implication on the manuscript at all stages.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Manan Shah.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Additional information

Responsible Editor: Philippe Garrigues

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mori, H., Kundaliya, J., Naik, K. et al. IoT technologies in smart environment: security issues and future enhancements. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29, 47969–47987 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20132-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20132-1

Keywords

  • IoT (Internet of things)
  • Smart home
  • Smart transportation
  • Smart garbage collection
  • Smart agriculture
  • Key technologies
  • Intelligent sensors
  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi