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Facile synthesis of CoOOH@MXene to activate peroxymonosulfate for efficient degradation of sulfamethoxazole: performance and mechanism investigation

Abstract

Using MXene as substrate, CoOOH@MXene with different mass content of CoOOH were prepared and used to active peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the sulfamethoxazole (SMX) degradation. The sample characterizations demonstrated the successful preparation of CoOOH@MXene. CoOOH@MXene possessed much higher BET surface area (183.82 m2/g) than CoOOH (85.36 m2/g) and MXene (6.89 m2/g) due to the good dispersibility of CoOOH particles on MXene. Due to its large surface area, 1.3CoOOH@MXene displayed the best catalytic performance for the degradation of SMX. With 0.2 g/L of 1.3CoOOH@MXene and 0.5 mM of PMS, 20 μM of SMX was completely eliminated in 10 min. The degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetic model well, with rate constants of 0.33 min−1 for 1.3CoOOH@MXene and 0.054 min−1 for CoOOH. Influencing factors of initial pH, catalyst dosage, PMS concentration, SMX concentration, and co-existing anions on SMX degradation were assessed systematically. Recycling tests verified the excellent reusability and stability of the catalyst. Quenching experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance analysis substantiated that 1O2 played a leading role. Moreover, the intermediates were identified, and degradation pathways and activation mechanism of CoOOH@MXene for PMS were proposed. This work may highlight the application of MXene with transition metals in PMS activation.

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Data availability

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Funding

This work was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province (2021JJ40069) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (51878256).

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Xinjing Xia: methodology, formal analysis, data curation, and original draft writing; Lin Deng: writing—review and editing, funding acquisition, resources, and supervision; Lingfang Yang: intermediate identification and mechanism analysis; Zhou Shi: writing—review and editing and funding acquisition.

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Correspondence to Lin Deng.

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Xia, X., Deng, L., Yang, L. et al. Facile synthesis of CoOOH@MXene to activate peroxymonosulfate for efficient degradation of sulfamethoxazole: performance and mechanism investigation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29, 52995–53008 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-19664-3

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Keywords

  • MXene
  • CoOOH
  • PMS activation
  • SMX degradation
  • Mechanism analysis