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Multivariate optimization applied to the synthesis and reuse of a new sugarcane bagasse-based biosorbent to remove Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions

  • Adsorption (and Catalysis or Photocatalysis) Applied to Environmental Protection
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Abstract

This study reports the use of multivariate tools to optimize the synthesis of a new agricultural-based biosorbent derived from sugarcane bagasse (SB) for the removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions, as well as to optimize the process of desorption of these ions from the spent biosorbent using an acidic solution. The effects of the reaction parameters temperature (T), time (t), and the ratio of 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTCAD) to raw SB (wBTCAD wraw SB−1) on the chemical modification of raw SB with BTCAD and on the equilibrium adsorption capacity (qe) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were investigated by application of a 23 Doehlert experimental design (DED), followed by optimization using a statistical desirability tool to produce the best adsorbent in terms of performance and cost. The best reaction condition was wBTCAD wraw SB−1 of 4.0 g g−1, t of 1 h, and T of 70 ºC. The optimal synthesis condition resulted in a modified sugarcane bagasse (MSB) that provided qe values for Cd(II) and Pb(II) of 0.50 and 0.61 mmol g−1, respectively, obtained under the following conditions: 0.311 mmol Cd(II) L−1, 0.632 mmol Pb(II) L−1, pH 5.0, 4 h, 0.2 g L−1 MSB, 130 rpm, and 25 °C. The desorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from MSB was investigated by a 22 DED, with optimization using the desirability tool to obtain the best desorption condition in terms of HNO3 solution concentration (\({\mathit C}_{{\mathrm{HNO}}_3}\)) and t. The desorption efficiencies for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 90 ± 4% and 88 ± 3%, respectively, obtained using 0.7 mol L−1 HNO3, t of 42 min, and 1.0 g L−1 MSB-M(II) (M = Pb or Cd). Infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the natures of the interactions involved in the adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) on MSB, as well as possible changes in the chemical structure of MSB after desorption. The synthesis of MSB can be performed under mild reaction conditions (t = 1 h, T = 70 ºC), and the solvents used can be recovered by distillation. BTCA is commercially available at moderate cost and can alternatively be obtained employing microbial succinic acid, metal-free catalysis, and modest use of petrochemical feedstocks. Furthermore, MSB can be reused, which could contribute to increasing the economic feasibility of water and wastewater treatment processes.

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Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the Federal University of Ouro Preto and the Multicenter Chemistry Postgraduate Program of Minas Gerais State (PPGMQ-MG) for supporting this research. The authors are grateful to Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG, grant number CEX-APQ-01287-15), Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP, grant numbers 23109.000928/2020-33 and 23109.000929/2020-88), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, grant number 307445/2019-4) for the provision of a PQ-2 fellowship, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES, Finance Code 001), and the Multicenter Chemistry Postgraduate Program of Minas Gerais State (PPGMQ-MG).

Funding

Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Finance Code 001), Megg Madonyk Cota Elias, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (grant number CEX-APQ-01287–15), Leandro Vinícius Alves Gurgel, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (grant number 307445/2019–4), Leandro Vinícius Alves Gurgel, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (grant number 23109.000928/2020–33), Leandro Vinícius Alves Gurgel, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (grant number 23109.000929/2020–88), Liliane Catone Soares.

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Megg Madonyk Cota Elias: investigation, formal analysis, validation, conceptualization, writing—original draft. Liliane Catone Soares: conceptualization, validation, visualization, writing—review and editing. Luisa Cardoso Maia: methodology, formal analysis, validation, conceptualization. Mariana Viviane Lima Dias: investigation. Leandro Vinícius Alves Gurgel: methodology, formal analysis, validation, conceptualization, visualization, writing—review and editing, project administration, resources, supervision, funding acquisition.

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Correspondence to Leandro Vinícius Alves Gurgel.

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Elias, M.M.C., Soares, L.C., Maia, L.C. et al. Multivariate optimization applied to the synthesis and reuse of a new sugarcane bagasse-based biosorbent to remove Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29, 79954–79976 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-18654-9

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