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Extreme climatic effects hamper livestock production in Somalia

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Given the enormous impact of the livestock sector on Somalia’s economy and its vulnerability to climate variations, this study investigates short and long-term changes in climatic effects on livestock production by using data spanning from 1985 to 2016. To this end, the ARDL bounds testing and causality techniques were employed to model the long-run and short-run relationships, and direction of causality among sampled variables. Overall, the empirical results confirmed the existence of a stable long-run cointegration between variables. Rainfall and temperature patterns were found to have a significant positive and negative impact on livestock production both in the long run and short run, respectively. The observed carbon dioxide emissions have no significant impact on livestock production in the long run but enhance livestock production in the short run. Interestingly, growth in rural population declines livestock production in the long run but not in the short run. Besides, a unidirectional causality is confirmed from temperature to rainfall and CO2 whereas livestock production has a bidirectional causal relationship with rainfall and temperature. While CO2 emissions granger cause livestock production, a unidirectional causation is observed from rural population to temperature and livestock production. This study suggests adaptation and mitigation policies that combat the negative consequences of climate change.

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source: World Bank (2020)

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The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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Authors and Affiliations



Abdimalik Ali Warsame performed the concept and design of the study, data collection and analysis, material preparation, some parts of the introduction, and the combination of the whole manuscript.

Ibrahim Abdukadir Sheik-Ali wrote some parts of the introduction and the improvement of the whole manuscript.

Abdullahi Abdirahman Hassan contributed to the manuscript by writing the methodology and improvement of the manuscript.

Samuel Asumadu Sarkodie reviewed and edited the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Abdimalik Ali Warsame.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Warsame, A.A., Sheik-Ali, I.A., Hassan, A.A. et al. Extreme climatic effects hamper livestock production in Somalia. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29, 40755–40767 (2022).

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