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Contrasting effect of zirconium-, iron-, and zirconium/iron-modified attapulgites capping and amendment on phosphorus mobilization in sediment

Abstract

In this research, the sorption characteristics and mechanism of phosphate on zirconium-modified attapulgite (Zr-ATP), iron-modified attapulgite (Fe-ATP), and zirconium/iron co-modified attapulgite (Zr/Fe-ATP) prepared by a simple impregnation method were studied, and the impacts of Zr-ATP, Fe-ATP, and Zr/Fe-ATP amendment and capping on the migration of phosphorus (P) from sediments to overlying waters were investigated. The results showed that Zr-ATP and Zr/Fe-ATP possessed stronger adsorption ability for phosphate in aqueous solution than Fe-ATP. The ligand replacement of the hydroxyl group with the phosphate anion to form the inner-sphere phosphate complex played a crucial role in the adsorption process of phosphate on Zr-ATP, Fe-ATP, and Zr/Fe-ATP. Most of the phosphate ions bound by Zr-ATP and Zr/Fe-ATP were in the form of caustic soda solution-extractable inorganic P (NaOH-IP) and residual P (Res-P), and it is hard for these P species to be re-released into water under the circumstances of reducing environment and normal pH (5–9). The ratio of mobile P to total P of Fe-ATP loaded with phosphate was much higher than those of Zr-ATP and Zr/Fe-ATP loaded with phosphate, indicating that Fe-ATP-bound phosphate has a higher re-releasing risk than Zr-ATP-bound and Zr/Fe-ATP-bound phosphate. Zr-ATP, Fe-ATP, and Zr/Fe-ATP amendment all can reduce the releasing risk of P from sediments to overlying waters. The amendment of sediment with Zr-ATP and Zr/Fe-ATP can both induce the conversion of redox-sensitive P (BD-P) to NaOH-IP and Res-P in the sediment, making the phosphorus in the sediment more stable. However, the amendment of sediment with Fe-ATP can only induce the conversion of HCl-P to NaOH-IP in the sediment and had a negligible effect on the inorganic P activity in the sediment. Zr-ATP, Fe-ATP, and Zr/Fe-ATP capping all can reduce the risk of P release from sediment into the overlying water, and Zr-ATP and Zr/Fe-ATP capping had a better reduction efficiency of internal P liberation to the overlying water than Fe-ATP capping. Zr-ATP, Fe-ATP, and Zr/Fe-ATP capping all can give rise to the reduction of pore water SRP and diffusive gradient in thin-film (DGT)-labile P in the upper sediment. This is beneficial to the control of P releasing from sediment into the overlying water by the Zr-ATP, Fe-ATP, and Zr/Fe-ATP capping. The findings of this work suggest that Zr-ATP and Zr/Fe-ATP are promising active capping or amendment materials for internal P loading management in surface water bodies.

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All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article. Declarations.

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Funding

This work was jointly supported by the Shandong Key Scientific and Technical Innovation Project (Grant No. 2018YFJH0902), National Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51408354 and 50908142), Shanghai Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 15ZR1420700), and Scientific Research Project of Shanghai Science and Technology Committee (Grant No. 10230502900).

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Niuniu Liu: data curation, writing – original draft, investigation; Wanyan Chen: investigation; Jianwei Lin: formal analysis, methodology, writing – original draft, software, conceptualization, funding acquisition, writing – review and editing; Yanhui Zhan: software, validation, project administration, resources.

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Correspondence to Jianwei Lin.

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Liu, N., Chen, W., Lin, J. et al. Contrasting effect of zirconium-, iron-, and zirconium/iron-modified attapulgites capping and amendment on phosphorus mobilization in sediment. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16979-5

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Keywords

  • Zirconium-modified attapulgite
  • Iron-modified attapulgite
  • Zirconium/iron co-modified attapulgite
  • Sediment
  • Phosphorus
  • Capping
  • Amendment