Permanganate is an oxidant usually applied for in situ soil remediation due to its persistence underground. It has already shown great efficiency for dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) degradation under batch experiment conditions. In the present study, experimental permanganate oxidation of a DNAPL — coal tar — sampled in the groundwater of a former coking plant was carried out in a glass bead column. Several glass bead columns were spiked with coal tar using the drainage-imbibition method to mimic on-site pollution spread at residual saturation as best as possible. The leaching of organic pollutants was monitored as the columns were flushed by successive sequences: successive injections of hot water, permanganate solution for oxidation, and ambient temperature water, completed by two injections of a tracer before and after oxidation. Sixteen conventional US-EPA PAHs and selected polar PACs were analyzed in the DNAPL remaining in the columns at the end of the experiment and in the particles collected at several steps of the flushing sequences. Permanganate oxidation of the pollutants was rapidly limited by interfacial aging of the DNAPL drops. Moreover, at the applied flow rate chosen to be representative of in situ injections and groundwater velocities, the reaction time was not sufficient to reach high degradation yields but induced the formation and the leaching of oxygenated PACs.
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This work was supported by the French Environmental Agency (ADEME) and the French National Association for Research and Technology (ANRT). This work is included in the scientific program of the GISFI research consortium dedicated to knowledge and the development on remediation technologies for degraded and polluted lands (Groupement d'Intérêt Scientifique sur les Friches Industrielles —http://www.gisfi.univ-lorraine.fr). The authors thank the BRGM/DEPA division for its financial support. The authors are also grateful for the financial support provided to the PIVOTS project by the Centre-Val de Loire region (ARD 2020 program and CPER 2015-2020) and the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research (CPER 2015-2020 and public service subsidy to BRGM). They are also grateful to the European Union via the European Regional Development Fund for its support. We thank ArcelorMittal France for the assistance provided in the BIOXYVAL project, particularly for the provision of a site that allowed proper execution of the project work. We also thank Gilles Bessaque (GeoRessources) and Vincent Sauterau (BRGM) for their help in designing/constructing useful equipment. Petra Skacelova (NanoIron), Benjamin Douche (BRGM), and Audrey Dufour (CETRAHE) are thanked for their essential help during the experimentations and data treatment.
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• KMnO4 oxidation of PAHs and polar PACs from a DNAPL was monitored.
• The KMnO4 reaction was more limited as the DNAPL-water interface evolved.
• DNAPL oxidation by KMnO4 formed many ketones that leached from the column.
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Johansson, C., Bataillard, P., Biache, C. et al. Permanganate oxidation of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs and polar PACs): column experiments with DNAPL at residual saturation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29, 15966–15982 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16717-x
- Soil and groundwater remediation
- O-PAC ketones
- Potassium permanganate
- Dense nonaqueous phase liquid
- Column flow-through experiments