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Potential of hypercrosslinked microporous polymer based on carbazole networks for Pb(II) ions removal from aqueous solutions

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Abstract

In this research, porous adsorbents of hypercrosslinked microporous polymer based on carbazole networks (HCP-CN) were synthesized for Pb(II) elimination from wastewaters. The results demonstrated that the extreme HCP-CN adsorbents utilization in wastewater treatment could remove more than 99.88% of Pb (II) ions. Furthermore, the two consumed adsorbents similarly indicated rapid adsorption kinetics, and it merely took a while to achieve adsorption equilibrium. These characteristics showed that HCP-CN adsorbent was an outstanding candidate for Pb(II) elimination from wastewater. Besides, the thermodynamic characteristics involving Gibbs free energy change (∆G0), entropy change (∆S0), and enthalpy change (∆H0) of the adsorption procedure were evaluated, and the results affirmed that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. In addition, response surface methodology (RSM) as a statistical investigation was used to optimize adsorption factors to obtain maximum adsorption capacity and investigate the interactive effect of parameters using central composite design (CCD). Optimum conditions obtained by RSM for maximum adsorption capacity of 26.02 mg/g are 35 °C, 40 mg/L, 11, 60 min, and 99.88 for temperature, initial concentration, pH, time, and removal percent, respectively. In the kinetic modeling study, the second-order model was selected as the best model. The values R2 at temperatures 35 °C, 40 °C, and 55 °C are 0.997, 0.9997, and 0.998, respectively. In the isotherm modeling, Hill model with a value R2 of 0.9766 has a superior precision compared to the other isotherm models. Also, the values of ΔH and ΔS at Pb(II) concentration of 60 mg/L are 122.622 kJ/mol and 0.463 kJ/mole K, respectively.

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All authors are grateful to their representative universities/institutes for providing experimental facilities and financial support.

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Pouran Rahnama: Conceptualization, data curation, formal analysis and investigation, methodology, software, validation, visualization, writing original draft preparation, and writing review and editing, Ahad Ghaemi: Supervision, conceptualization, data curation, formal analysis and investigation, methodology, software, validation, visualization, and writing review and editing, and writing review & editing, Masoud Nasiri: Supervision conceptualization, data curation, formal analysis and investigation, and writing review & editing.

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Correspondence to Ahad Ghaemi.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Rahnama Haratbar, P., Ghaemi, A. & Nasiri, M. Potential of hypercrosslinked microporous polymer based on carbazole networks for Pb(II) ions removal from aqueous solutions. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29, 15040–15056 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16603-6

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16603-6

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