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Table 1 Potential targets and Rasayana herbs along with their phytoconstituents evaluated through various in silico studies

From: Ayurveda Rasayana as antivirals and immunomodulators: potential applications in COVID-19

Potential target Phytoconstituents Herbs Reference
3 CL protease Vasicine Adhatoda vasica Nees. (Vasa) Thangaraju et al. (2021)
Various phytoconstituents Terminalia chebula Retz. (Haritaki) Upadhyay et al. (2020)
Curcumin Curcuma longa L. (Haridra) Vajragupta et al. (2005)
Berberine Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers. (Guduchi) Chowdhury (2020); Shree et al. (2020)
Withanolide I Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Ashwagandha) Khanal et al. (2021)
Pl pro Withanolide G Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Ashwagandha) Khanal et al. (2021)
Inhibiting the enzyme activity of TMPRSS2 Phyllaemblicin G7 Phyllanthus emblica L. (Aamlaki) Ilona et al. (2011)
High binding affinity to ACE2 protein and main protease (MPro) Phyllaemblicin G7 Phyllanthus emblica L. (Aamlaki) Kothandan et al. (2021)
Piperolactam A Piper longum L. (Pippali) Kothandan et al. (2021)
Anisotine Adhatoda vasica Nees. (Vasa) Ghosh et al. (2021)
Embelin Embelia ribes Burm. (Vidang) Caruso et al. (2020)
Withaferin A Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Ashwagandha) Straughn and Kakar (2020)
Cordioside and other constituents Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers. (Guduchi) Jena et al. (2021)
Glycyrrhizin Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Yastimadhu) Muhseen et al. (2021)
Mpro Boeravisterol Boerhavia diffusa L (Punarnava) Rutwick Surya and Praveen (2021)
Embelin Embelia ribes Burm. (Vidang) Caruso et al. (2020)
Various phytoconstituents Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers. (Guduchi) Shree et al. (2020)
Nsp 15 endoribonuclease Glyasperin Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Yashtimadhu) Muhseen et al. (2020)
Asparoside-D Asparagus racemosus Willd. (Shatavari) Chikhale et al. (2020)
ACE2–RBD interface Withanone
Withanolide A
Glyasperin
Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Ashwagandha) Balkrishna et al. (2020b); Muhseen et al. (2020)
Glycyrrhyzin Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Yashtimadhu) Muhseen et al. (2020)
RBD complex Glycyrrhizinate complex Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Yashtimadhu) Kalhor et al. (2020)
Spike protein Phyllaemblicin G7 Phyllanthus emblica L. (Aamlaki) Ilona et al. (2011)
Racemoside A, racemoside C, asparoside-C, asparoside-F Asparagus racemosus Willd. (Shatavari) Chikhale et al. (2020); Patel et al. (2021)
Glycyrrhizic acid Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Yashtimadhu) Sinha et al. (2020)
Withaferin Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Ashwagandha) Straughn and Kakar (2020)
Withanolide M Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Ashwagandha) Khanal et al. (2021)
Helicase inhibitors Phyllaemblicin B
Phyllaemblinol
Phyllanthus emblica L. (Aamlaki) Ilona et al. (2011)