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A new record for the presence of microplastics in dominant fish species of the Karasu River Erzurum, Turkey

Abstract

It is known that microplastics (MPs) are increasingly detected in aquatic environments (sea and fresh water), and the presence of these pollutants have worrying potential effects on the biota. This study is the first research to measure and characterize MPs in freshwater ecosystems (inland waters) in Turkey. Accordingly, the identification and characterization of MPs in the gastrointestinal systems of fish by making samples of three species [chub (Squalius cephalus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and mossul bleak (Alburnus mossulensis)] of the carp family living in Karasu River in Erzurum. Hydrogen peroxide application and Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR) analyses were done for this purpose. In the obtained results, 232 microplastics were found in all three fish gastrointestinal systems. While the highest determined color was black (39–58%), the most common shape was fiber (88%), fragment (6%, and pellet (6%); MPs in the range of maximum 1001–2000 mm were detected in size. Plastics are defined as polyethylene, polyester, poly (vinyl stearate), polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, and cellulose. Among the studied species, the most common type of plastic pollutants was found in S. cephalus. The findings indicated the presence of microplastics in dominant species. However, these findings will be basic information for future studies on living things and microplastics in inland waters.

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Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the technical staff of our faculty in fishing the samples, and in the statistical analysis of the study findings to Prof. Dr. Nurinisa Esenbuğa.

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Muhammed Atamanalp is the owner of research idea. Muhammed Atamanalp and Gonca Alak prepared the outlines and draft of the manuscript. Muhammed Atamanalp, Arzu Uçar, Veysel Parlak, and Gökhan Arslan caught the fish samples. Gonca Alak and Mine Köktürk did laboratory analyses. Veysel Parlak, Muhammed Atamanalp, and Gonca Alak designed the figures along with comprehensive tables, along with critical editing and reviewing of the whole manuscript. All the authors read and approved the final version.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gonca Alak.

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Ethics approval

The trials were approved by Turkish Republic Ministry of Agriculture and Forest, Ethical Committee for Area Studies (Approved in: 04.03.2020, Acceptance No: 67852565-140.03.03-E.876155).

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Fisheries, Environmental Science, Natural Science

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Environmental Science and Pollution Research have consent to publish this article.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Atamanalp, ., Köktürk, M., Parlak, V. et al. A new record for the presence of microplastics in dominant fish species of the Karasu River Erzurum, Turkey. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29, 7866–7876 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16243-w

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16243-w

Keywords

  • FTIR
  • Fish
  • Microplastics
  • Fresh water
  • Turkey