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Performance analysis of crushed gravel sand heat storage and biomass evaporator-assisted single slope solar still


In this research work, the productivity, energy, exergy, and economic and enviro-economic performance in crushed gravel sand heat storage and biomass evaporator-assisted solar still (CGS-BSS) have been investigated and compared the results with conventional solar still (CSS) under the similar climatic conditions of Coimbatore City during the year 2019. The heat accumulated in crushed gravel sand and biomass evaporator have been used to preheat the inlet saline water and air vapor before entering into the solar still. This results in enhanced air vapor mixture temperature and evaporative heat transfer rate of CGS-BSS significantly. The productivity, energy, and exergy efficiencies in CGS-BSS were improved by 34.6%, 34.4%, and 35%, respectively when compared to CSS. In economic analysis, the payback period (PBP) in both CGS-BSS and CSS was estimated to be about 4.7 months and 3.9 months, respectively. Furthermore, in enviro-economic analysis, the CO2 emission estimated in CGS-BSS and CSS was about 16.63 tons and 8.18 tons, respectively during its lifetime of 10 years.

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Availability of data and materials



A :

basin area, m2

E :

energy, W

E x :

exergy, W


solar irradiation, W/m2

h :

heat transfer co-efficient, W/m2K

L :

latent heat, kJ/kg

m :

hourly productivity, kg

n :

number of years

P :

pressure, N/m2

T :

temperature, K

\( {N}_{co_2} \) :

net CO2 mitigation

\( {R}_{co_2} \) :

market price of CO2 mitigation

ɛ eff :

effective emissivity

σ :

Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 5.67 × 10−8 W/m2K4

ɳ :


a :

ambient air

c :


eva :


g :


in :

embodied energy

n :

annual rate

o :


out :

output energy

p d :

annual productivity

s :


ss :

solar still

w :


AC :

annual cost


annual maintenance cost


annual salvage value


crushed gravel sand and biomass solar still

CC :

capital cost


carbon credit earned


cost per liter


capital recovery factor


conventional solar still


fixed annual cost

LT :

life time of the solar still


payback period

S :

salvage value


sinking fund factor


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The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their useful comments and suggestions.

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Authors and Affiliations



Ramasamy Dhivagar— Conceptualization, Methodology, Investigation, Writing - original draft. 

Murugesan Mohanraj— Supervision. 

Yerzhan Belyayev— Supervision. 

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ramasamy Dhivagar.

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In energy analysis, the mathematical relations of PgPw, and εeff are given below:

$$ {P}_g=\mathit{\exp}\ \left[25.317-\frac{\mathrm{5,144}}{T_g+273}\right] $$
$$ {P}_w=\mathit{\exp}\ \left[25.317-\frac{\mathrm{5,144}}{T_w+273}\right] $$
$$ {\varepsilon}_{eff}=\frac{1}{\left[\frac{1}{\varepsilon_w}+\frac{1}{\varepsilon_g}-1\right]} $$

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Dhivagar, ., Mohanraj, M. & Belyayev, . Performance analysis of crushed gravel sand heat storage and biomass evaporator-assisted single slope solar still. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 65610–65620 (2021).

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  • Biomass evaporator
  • Crushed gravel sand
  • Energy
  • Exergy
  • Productivity
  • Solar still