Particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter ≤1 μm (PM1) significantly increased mortality risk, and the effect of PM1 was even greater than that of PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm). But the quantitative impact of PM1 on life expectancy was unknown. We aim to examine the extent to which that people’s life expectancy was shortened by PM1 and PM2.5. We obtained daily data on deaths, PM1 and PM2.5 records, and weather variables during 2016–2017 in Nanjing, China. Years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated by matching each decedent’s age and sex to the Chinese life table. The fitted nonlinear dose-response associations of YLLs with PM1 and PM2.5 were estimated by utilizing a generalized additive model with a Gaussian link that controlled for confounding factors including meteorological variables, day of week, and long-term trend and seasonality. The effect estimates were presented as the YLLs when PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations fell in different ranges. Life expectancy losses attributable to PM1 and PM2.5 were calculated. Stratified analyses were also performed by age, sex, and death causes. Significant PM-YLL associations were observed, with greater increases in YLLs associated with PM1 (68.9 thousand). PM1 was estimated to reduce life expectancy, which was greater than PM2.5 (PM1: 1.67 years; PM2.5: 1.55 years). For PM1, greater years of loss in PM-related life expectancy were found in the female group, ≥65 years group, and cardiovascular disease group. Exposure to PM1 had a greater impact on life expectancy loss than did PM2.5. Constant efforts are urgently needed to control PM1 air pollution to improve people’s longevity.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Availability of data and materials
The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Bennett JE, Tamura-Wicks H, Parks RM, Burnett RT, Pope CA 3rd, Bechle MJ et al (2019) Particulate matter air pollution and national and county life expectancy loss in the USA: a spatiotemporal analysis. PLoS Med 16:e1002856
Buczyńska AJ, Krata A, Van Grieken R, Brown A, Polezer G, De Wael K et al (2014) Composition of PM2.5 and PM1 on high and low pollution event days and its relation to indoor air quality in a home for the elderly. Sci Total Environ 490:134–143
Chen G, Li S, Zhang Y, Zhang W, Li D, Wei X et al (2017) Effects of ambient PM1 air pollution on daily emergency hospital visits in China: an epidemiological study. The Lancet Planetary Health 1:e221–e229
Chen G, Wang A, Li S, Zhao X, Wang Y, Li H et al (2019) Long-term exposure to air pollution and survival after ischemic stroke. Stroke 50:563–570
Chen D, Mayvaneh F, Baaghideh M, Entezari A, Ho HC, Xiang Q et al (2020) Utilizing daily excessive concentration hours to estimate cardiovascular mortality and years of life lost attributable to fine particulate matter in Tehran, Iran. Sci Total Environ 703:134909
Cheng J, Ho HC, Webster C, Su H, Pan H, Zheng H et al (2021) Lower-than-standard particulate matter air pollution reduced life expectancy in Hong Kong: a time-series analysis of 8.5 million years of life lost. Chemosphere 272:129926
Cohen AJ, Brauer M, Burnett R, Anderson HR, Frostad J, Estep K et al (2017) Estimates and 25-year trends of the global burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution: an analysis of data from the global burden of diseases study 2015. Lancet 389:1907–1918
Di Q, Dai L, Wang Y, Zanobetti A, Choirat C, Schwartz JD et al (2017) Association of short-term exposure to air pollution with mortality in older adults. Jama 318:2446–2456
Filep Á, Fodor GH, Kun-Szabó F, Tiszlavicz L, Rázga Z, Bozsó G et al (2016) Exposure to urban PM1 in rats: development of bronchial inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Respir Res 17:26
Gao M, Beig G, Song S, Zhang H, Hu J, Ying Q et al (2018) The impact of power generation emissions on ambient PM2.5 pollution and human health in China and India. Environ Int 121:250–259
Guo Y, Li S, Tian Z, Pan X, Zhang J, Williams G (2013) The burden of air pollution on years of life lost in Beijing, China, 2004–08: retrospective regression analysis of daily deaths. BMJ 347:f7139
Hassanvand MS, Naddafi K, Faridi S, Nabizadeh R, Sowlat MH, Momeniha F et al (2015) Characterization of pahs and metals in indoor/outdoor PM10/PM2.5/PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory. Sci Total Environ 527-528:100–110
Hayes RB, Lim C, Zhang Y, Cromar K, Shao Y, Reynolds HR et al (2020) PM2.5 air pollution and cause-specific cardiovascular disease mortality. Int J Epidemiol 49:25–35
Hu K, Guo Y, Hu D, Du R, Yang X, Zhong J et al (2018) Mortality burden attributable to PM1 in Zhejiang province, China. Environ Int 121:515–522
Huang C, Barnett AG, Wang X, Tong S (2012) The impact of temperature on years of life lost in Brisbane, Australia. Nat Clim Chang 2:265–270
Huang F, Pan B, Wu J, Chen E, Chen L (2017) Relationship between exposure to PM2.5 and lung cancer incidence and mortality: a meta-analysis. Oncotarget 8:43322–43331
Huang K, Yang X, Liang F, Liu F, Li J, Xiao Q et al (2019) Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter and hypertension incidence in China. Hypertension 73:1195–1201
Huang Y, Unger N, Harper K, Heyes C (2020) Global climate and human health effects of the gasoline and diesel vehicle fleets. GeoHealth 4:e2019GH000240
Jia B, Gao M, Zhang X, Xiao X, Zhang S, Lam Yung KK (2021) Rapid increase in mortality attributable to PM2.5 exposure in India over 1998–2015. Chemosphere 269:128715
Kan H (2017) The smaller, the worse? Lancet Planetary Health 1:e210–e211
Li C, Zhu Z (2018) Research and application of a novel hybrid air quality early-warning system: a case study in China. Sci Total Environ 626:1421–1438
Li J, Zhang X, Yin P, Wang L, Zhou M (2020) Ambient fine particulate matter pollution and years of life lost from cardiovascular diseases in 48 large Chinese cities: association, effect modification, and additional life gain. Sci Total Environ 735:139413
Lin H, Tao J, Du Y, Liu T, Qian Z, Tian L et al (2016) Particle size and chemical constituents of ambient particulate pollution associated with cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou, China. Environ Pollut 208:758–766
Liu L, Song F, Fang J, Wei J, Ho HC, Song Y et al (2021) Intraday effects of ambient PM1 on emergency department visits in Guangzhou, China: a case-crossover study. Sci Total Environ 750:142347
Mao M, Sun H, Zhang X (2020) Air pollution characteristics and health risks in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, China during winter. Int J Environ Res Public Health 17
Martins V, Faria T, Diapouli E, Manousakas MI, Eleftheriadis K, Viana M et al (2020) Relationship between indoor and outdoor size-fractionated particulate matter in urban microenvironments: levels, chemical composition and sources. Environ Res 183:109203
Mo X, Zhang L, Li H, Qu Z (2019) A novel air quality early-warning system based on artificial intelligence. Int J Environ Res Public Health 16
Moradi M, Hadei M, Yazdani M, Goudarzi M, Baboli Z, Tahmasebi Birgani Y et al (2021) Effect of long-term exposure to PM2.5 on years of life lost in a populated Middle Eastern city. Environ Geochem Health
Odhiambo Sewe M, Bunker A, Ingole V, Egondi T, Oudin Åström D, Hondula DM et al (2018) Estimated effect of temperature on years of life lost: a retrospective time-series study of low-, middle-, and high-income regions. Environ Health Perspect 126:017004
Qi J, Ruan Z, Qian ZM, Yin P, Yang Y, Acharya BK et al (2020) Potential gains in life expectancy by attaining daily ambient fine particulate matter pollution standards in mainland China: a modeling study based on nationwide data. PLoS Med 17:e1003027
Qi J, Chen Q, Ruan Z, Qian ZM, Yin P, Liu Y et al (2021) Improvement in life expectancy for ischemic heart diseases by achieving daily ambient PM2.5 standards in China. Environ Res 193:110512
Qian X, Xu G, Li L, Shen Y, He T, Liang Y et al (2016) Knowledge and perceptions of air pollution in Ningbo, China. BMC Public Health 16:1138
Samek L, Furman L, Mikrut M, Regiel-Futyra A, Macyk W, Stochel G et al (2017) Chemical composition of submicron and fine particulate matter collected in Krakow. Poland Consequences for the aparic project Chemosphere 187:430–439
Samek L, Stegowski Z, Styszko K, Furman L, Fiedor J (2018) Seasonal contribution of assessed sources to submicron and fine particulate matter in a Central European urban area. Environ Pollut 241:406–411
Tian G, Wang J, Lu Z, Wang H, Zhang W, Ding W et al (2019) Indirect effect of PM1 on endothelial cells via inducing the release of respiratory inflammatory cytokines. Toxicol Int J Pub Asso BIBRA 57:203–210
Wang BY, Lang JD, Zhang LN, Fang JH, Cao C, Hao JM et al (2015) [Characterizing Beijing’s airborne bacterial communities in PM2.5 and PM1 samples during haze pollution episodes using 16s rRNA gene analysis method]. Huan jing ke xue=. Huanjing Kexue 36:2727–2734
Wang G, Xu Y, Huang L, Wang K, Shen H, Li Z (2021a) Pollution characteristics and toxic effects of PM1.0 and PM2.5 in Harbin, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 28:13229–13242
Wang H, Yin P, Fan W, Wang Y, Dong Z, Deng Q et al (2021b) Mortality risk associated with short-term exposure to particulate matter in China: estimating error and implication. Environ Sci Technol 55:1110–1121
Wang X, Xu Z, Su H, Ho HC, Song Y, Zheng H et al (2021c) Ambient particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5, PM10) and childhood pneumonia: the smaller particle, the greater short-term impact? Sci Total Environ 772:145509
Wei J, Li Z, Guo J, Sun L, Huang W, Xue W et al (2019) Satellite-derived 1-km-resolution PM1 concentrations from 2014 to 2018 across China. Environ Sci Technol 53(22):13265–13274
Wei J, Li Z, Lyapustin A, Sun L, Peng Y, Xue W et al (2021) Reconstructing 1-km-resolution high-quality PM2.5 data records from 2000 to 2018 in China: spatiotemporal variations and policy implications. Remote Sens Environ 252
Wu QZ, Li S, Yang BY, Bloom M, Shi Z, Knibbs L et al (2020) Ambient airborne particulates of diameter ≤1 μm, a leading contributor to the association between ambient airborne particulates of diameter ≤2.5 μm and children’s blood pressure. Hypertension 75:347–355
Xu Z, Hu W, Wang X, Huang C, Tong S (2014) The impact of temperature variability on years of life lost. Epidemiol 25:313–314
Yang M, Chu C, Bloom MS, Li S, Chen G, Heinrich J et al (2018) Is smaller worse? New insights about associations of PM1 and respiratory health in children and adolescents. Environ Int 120:516–524
Yang BY, Guo Y, Markevych I, Qian ZM, Bloom MS, Heinrich J et al (2019a) Association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in China. JAMA Netw Open 2:e190318
Yang BY, Guo Y, Morawska L, Bloom MS, Markevych I, Heinrich J et al (2019b) Ambient PM1 air pollution and cardiovascular disease prevalence: insights from the 33 communities Chinese health study. Environ Int 123:310–317
Yin P, Guo J, Wang L, Fan W, Lu F, Guo M et al (2020) Higher risk of cardiovascular disease associated with smaller size-fractioned particulate matter. Environ Sci Technol Lett 7:95–101
Zallaghi E, Goudarzi G, Sabzalipour S, Zarasvandi A (2021) Effects of long-term exposure to PM2.5 on years of life lost and expected life remaining in Ahvaz city, Iran (2008–2017). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 28:280–286
Zhou M, Wang H, Zeng X, Yin P, Zhu J, Chen W et al (2019) Mortality, morbidity, and risk factors in China and its provinces, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017. Lancet 394:1145–1158
Zhu J, Zhang X, Zhang X, Dong M, Wu J, Dong Y et al (2017) The burden of ambient air pollution on years of life lost in Wuxi, China, 2012–2015: a time-series study using a distributed lag non-linear model. Environmental pollution 224:689–697
Zhu F, Chen L, Qian ZM, Liao Y, Zhang Z, McMillin SE et al (2021) Acute effects of particulate matter with different sizes on respiratory mortality in Shenzhen, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81773518) and the High-Level Scientific Research Foundation of Anhui Medical University (No. 0305044201).
This study was approved by the Ethical Committee of Anhui Medical University (Hefei, Anhui, China).
Consent to participate
Not applicable. (This study does not contain any individual person’s data in any form.)
Consent for publication
The authors declare that they agree with the publication of this paper in this journal.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Responsible Editor: Lotfi Aleya
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
(DOC 19 kb)
Figure S1 The geographical location of Nanjing in Jiangsu Province, China.
Figure S2 Histogram of the frequency distribution of daily years of life lost in 2016-2017.
Figure S3 Time-series distribution of PM1, PM2.5, and YLLs in Nanjing, China 2016-2017. PM1, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤1μm; PM2.5, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm; YLLs, years of life lost.
Figure S4 Dose-response relationships between daily PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations and YLLs for the total population using double-pollutant model (PMs and NO2). (a), relationship of PM1-YLL; (b), relationship of PM2.5-YLL; PM1, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤1μm; PM2.5, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm; YLLs, years of life lost.
About this article
Cite this article
Zheng, H., Yi, W., Ding, Z. et al. Evaluation of life expectancy loss associated with submicron and fine particulate matter (PM1 and PM2.5) air pollution in Nanjing, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 68134–68143 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15244-z