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Dustfall-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) over the fifth largest Chinese lake: residual levels, source apportionment, and correlations with suspended particulate matter (SPM)-bound PAHs in water

Abstract

Residual levels and temporal–spatial distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dustfall were studied at the seasonal scale between June 2010 and May 2011 in the fifth largest shallow lake in China. PAHs flux of atmospheric deposition and the impact on the PAHs in the lake water column were estimated. The major sources of PAHs were identified by multiple methods. We found that (1) the seasonal residual levels of 16 priority controlled PAHs (PAH16) were spring (8.89 ± 3.93 μg g−1) > summer (6.68 ± 4.31 μg g−1) > winter (6.06 ± 2.95 μg g−1) > autumn (3.55 ± 2.21 μg g−1). (2) Significant positive correlations were found between the PAH levels in the dustfall and the suspended particle material (SPM) content, as well as between the deposition flux and the PAH content in the water in all four seasons. (3) Vehicle emissions, coal combustion, biomass combustion, and coke ovens were the four major sources in Lake Chaohu, accounting for 12.7%, 40.9%, 14.5%, and 31.9% of the total PAHs, respectively. (4) Compared to long-distance trajectories, short-distance trajectories played a more important role in the external sources of atmospheric PAHs in the region of Lake Chaohu.

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Acknowledgements

We thank the help from the National Environmental and Energy Base for International Science & Technology Cooperation.

Availability of data and materials

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article (and its supplementary information files).

Funding

This research was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (FRF-TP-18-071A1) and by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (41977312, 41503104, 41030529).

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Ning Qin: conceptualization, methodology, experiment, formal analysis, data curation, writing - original draft, visualization. Xiang-Zhen Kong: investigation, writing, visualization. Wei He: investigation, experiment. Qi-Shuang He: investigation, experiment. Wen-Xiu Liu: investigation, experiment. Fu-Liu Xu: supervision, project administration, funding acquisition.

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Correspondence to Fu-Liu Xu.

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Qin, N., Kong, XZ., He, W. et al. Dustfall-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) over the fifth largest Chinese lake: residual levels, source apportionment, and correlations with suspended particulate matter (SPM)-bound PAHs in water. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14873-8

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Keywords

  • Lake Chaohu
  • PAHs
  • Dustfall
  • Deposition flux
  • Source apportionment
  • Backward trajectories