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A relative study on energy and exergy analysis between conventional single slope and novel stepped absorbable plate solar stills

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Abstract

The innovation of novel absorbing materials using composite materials and nanotechnology is of new trends for many researches. Here, the present study is concerning to enhance the distilled water productivity of a proposed solar still (PSS) using novel absorbing materials. The absorbing material is composed of chitosan (obtained from waste shrimp shells), ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and Chrysopogon zizaniodes (Vetiver). The combination of these materials is coined as CHEDZ, and it acts as a super absorbent polymer that is coated on the stepped solar still. Evaporation rate increases due to this absorbent, which further increases the yield of the still. In this present study, the PSS is compared with the conventional solar still (CSS) for the use of assessing the yield of freshwater in the same atmospheric circumstance. The experimental setup was performed through the period from December to February 2020 in the Indian climatic condition. The freshwater productivity was improved to 3.05 L/day while the yield of the CSS is 2.47 L/day. The increase in efficiency obtained from a PSS is 39.71% more than the productivity attained from the CSS. The energy efficiency of the PSS is 18.34% and the exergy efficiency is 0.45%.

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Abbreviations

EDTA:

ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid

CHEDZ:

composed of chitosan (obtained from waste shrimp shells), ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and Chrysopogon zizaniodes

PSS:

proposed solar still

CSS:

conventional solar still

En w,in :

energy input rate of the water

En solar, in :

solar energy input rate

En w, out :

energy output rate of the water

En loss :

energy rate of the system

α :

permeability of the system

q :

solar radiation rate and collector area

A :

area

En loss :

energy loss rate of the system

Q loss, conv :

convection heat loss rate

Q loss, rad :

radiation heat loss rate

ϵ :

emissivity of the system

σ :

Stefan Boltzmann constant

h :

convection heat transfer coefficient

T surf :

slass surface temperature

T air :

air temperature

k :

thermal conductivity

Nu :

Nusselt number

L:

characteristics length of the system

Ra:

Rayleigh number

G:

perimeter

Pr:

Prandtl number

v:

kinetic viscosity

θ :

angle of the solar collector

T 0 :

dead state temperature

T sun :

sun temperature

T w, in :

collector input temperature

T w, out :

collector output temperature

m w :

mass flow rate

c p :

specific heat

∝:

permeability of the system

Q loss, rad :

convection heat loss rate

Q loss, conv :

radiation heat loss rate

T surf :

glass surface temperatures

Ex w, in :

exergy input rater of the water

Ex w, out :

exergy output rate of the water

Ex W :

net exergy rate of the water

En solar, in :

solar energy input rate

Ex solar, in :

solar exergy input rate

φ SI:

sustainability index

Ex loss, rad :

radiation exergy loss rate

Ex loss, conv :

convection exergy loss rate

Ex loss :

exergy loss rate of the system

Ex dest :

exergy destruction rate of the system

S gen :

entropy generation rate

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Alfredo Peinado (Birmingham University, UK) for his detailed revision of the context.

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Gurukarthik Babu Balachandran: Conceptualization, methodology, software.

Prince Winston David: Data curation, writing — original draft preparation.

Anandha Balaji Alexander: Software, investigation, validation.

Muthu Manokar Athikesavan: Writing — reviewing; formal analysis.

Padmanaban Velayudha perumal Chellam: Editing, project administration.

Krishna Kumar Sasi Kumar: Visualization.

Vinothkumar Palanichamy: Supervision, investigation.

Abd Elnaby Kabeel: Conceptualization, methodology.

Ravishankar Sathyamurthy: Formal analysis.

Fausto Pedro Garcia Marquez: Editing, methodology.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Gurukarthik Babu Balachandran or Fausto Pedro Garcia Marquez.

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Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

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Responsible Editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Highlights of this study:

• The present study is concerning to enhance the distilled water productivity of a proposed solar still (PSS) using novel absorbing materials.

• The absorbing material is composed of chitosan (obtained from waste shrimp shells), ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and Chrysopogon zizaniodes (Vetiver). The combination of these materials is coined as CHEDZ, and it acts as a super absorbent polymer that is coated on the stepped solar still.

• The increase in efficiency obtained from a PSS is 39.71% more than the productivity attained from the CSS. The energy efficiency of the PSS is 18.34% and the exergy efficiency is 0.45%.

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Balachandran, G.B., David, P.W., Alexander, A.B. et al. A relative study on energy and exergy analysis between conventional single slope and novel stepped absorbable plate solar stills. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 57602–57618 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14640-9

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14640-9

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