Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Testing dependence patterns of energy consumption with economic expansion and trade openness through wavelet transformed coherence in top energy-consuming countries

  • Research Article
  • Published:
Environmental Science and Pollution Research Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Economic growth and trade openness are closely linked with energy consumption and hence have environmental consequences. Many studies have investigated the relationship between these variables. Two weaknesses in empirical literature on energy-growth nexus are prominent. First majority of the studies are conducted on different groups of countries; however, no study has focused the top energy-consuming countries despite their immense importance in the context of energy-growth nexus. Second, this literature cannot simultaneously capture time and frequency domains, short- and long-run dependence, and lagging and leading effects among the variables. Furthermore, environmental impacts of increased energy consumption emerging from trade base economic growth are less studied. This study employs wavelet transformed coherence method to examine dependence partners of energy consumption with economic expansion and trade openness in top 10 energy-consuming countries. This methodology avoids the unrealistic assumption of stationarity of the variables due to favorable scaling tool and unveils the time frequency dependence among variables with more reliability as it accounts for the seasonality, cycles, or trends extracted from the transformation change over time. Furthermore, this technique has the novelty to handle data when its transformation from one-dimensional to bi-dimensional time-frequency sphere is allowed. Findings reveal a positive influence of economic growth and trade on energy consumption in many countries. The wavelet transformed coherence indicates short-run coherence among energy consumption and economic growth of all the top 10 energy-consuming countries. Long-run dependence among energy consumption and economic growth exists in case of China, India, Brazil, and South Korea with mostly leading role of energy consumption over economic growth. The findings of the study reiterate the importance of energy consumption in the development of these economies and suggest that energy policies aimed at improving efficiency in the production and consumption of energy will not hurt economic growth.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. Author own calculations. For detail, see Appendix 1 and Appendix 2.

  2. For further explanation of Fourier analysis, see the work of Ransom et al. (2002).

  3. For detail explanation, see work of Tiwari (2012).

  4. For further details of WTC, see Ramsey (1928) and Grinsted et al. (2004).

References

  • Abalaba BP, Dada MA (2013) Energy consumption and economic growth nexus: new empirical evidence from Nigeria. Int J Energy Econ Policy 3(4):412

    Google Scholar 

  • Abdoli G, Gudarzi FY, Dastan S (2015) Electricity consumption and economic growth in OPEC countries: a cointegrated panel analysis. OPEC Energy Review 39(1):1–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Abosedra S, Dah A, Ghosh S (2009) Electricity consumption and economic growth, the case of Lebanon. Appl Energy 86(4):429–432

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aguiar-Conraria L, Magalhaes PC, Soares MJ (2013) The nationalization of electoral cycles in the United States: a wavelet analysis. Public Choice 156(3-4):387–408

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Akar BG (2016) The determinants of renewable energy consumption: an empirical analysis for the Balkans

  • AlKhars M, Miah F, Qudrat-Ullah H, Kayal A (2020) A systematic review of the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in GCC countries. Sustainability 12(9):3845

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alkhateeb TTY, Mahmood H (2019) Energy consumption and trade openness nexus in Egypt: asymmetry analysis. Energies 12(10):2018

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Al-mulali U, Lee JY (2013) Estimating the impact of the financial development on energy consumption: evidence from the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) countries. Energy 60:215–221

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Mulali U, Sab CNBC (2012) The impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on the economic growth and financial development in the Sub Saharan African countries. Energy 39(1):180–186

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Al-Mulali U, Ozturk I, Lean HH (2015) The influence of economic growth, urbanization, trade openness, financial development, and renewable energy on pollution in Europe. Nat Hazards 79(1):621–644

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ang JB (2007) CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy 35(10):4772–4778

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Apergis N, Payne JE (2009a) Energy consumption and economic growth: evidence from the Commonwealth of Independent States. Energy Econ 31(5):641–647

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Apergis N, Payne JE (2009b) Energy consumption and economic growth in Central America: evidence from a panel cointegration and error correction model. Energy Econ 31(2):211–216

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Apergis N, Payne JE (2010a) Energy consumption and growth in South America: evidence from a panel error correction model. Energy Econ 32(6):1421–1426

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Apergis N, Payne JE (2010b) Renewable energy consumption and economic growth: evidence from a panel of OECD countries. Energy Policy 38(1):656–660

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Apergis N, Payne JE (2011a) Renewable and non-renewable electricity consumption–growth nexus: evidence from emerging market economies. Appl Energy 88(12):5226–5230

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Apergis N, Payne JE (2011b) The renewable energy consumption–growth nexus in Central America. Appl Energy 88(1):343–347

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Apergis N, Payne JE (2012) Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption-growth nexus: evidence from a panel error correction model. Energy Econ 34(3):733–738

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arrow KJ (1971) The economic implications of learning by doing. In: In Readings in the theory of growth (pp. 131-149). Palgrave Macmillan, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Aslan A (2014) Causality between electricity consumption and economic growth in Turkey: an ARDL bounds testing approach. Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy 9(1):25–31

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Banerje S, Hazara S, Khan MA, Husnain MIU (2021) Investigating India’s pollution-intensive ‘dirty’ trade specialization: analysis with ‘revealed symmetric comparative advantage’ index, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-15.

  • Bickel PJ, Lehmann EL (2012) Descriptive statistics for nonparametric models. In: Introduction. In Selected works of EL Lehmann (pp. 465-471). Springer, Boston, MA

    Google Scholar 

  • Bildirici ME (2013) Economic growth and biomass energy. Biomass Bioenergy 50:19–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bilgili F, Öztürk İ, Koçak E, Bulut Ü, Pamuk Y, Muğaloğlu E, Bağlıtaş HH (2016) The influence of biomass energy consumption on CO 2 emissions: a wavelet coherence approach. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(19):19043–19061

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bodart V, Candelon B (2009) Evidence of interdependence and contagion using a frequency domain framework. Emerg Mark Rev 10(2):140–150

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bozoklu S, Yilanci V (2013) Energy consumption and economic growth for selected OECD countries: further evidence from the Granger causality test in the frequency domain. Energy Policy 63:877–881

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Breitung J (2002) Nonparametric tests for unit roots and cointegration. J Econ 108(2):343–363

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell J, Perron P (1991) Pitfalls and opportunities: what macroeconomists NBER macroeconomic annual; Blanchard, OJ, Fischer, S., Eds.

  • Chang CC (2010) A multivariate causality test of carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China. Appl Energy 87(11):3533–3537

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chen B, Hong Y (2012) Testing for smooth structural changes in time series models via nonparametric regression. Econometrica 80(3):1157–1183

  • Davies RB (1977) Hypothesis testing when a nuisance parameter is present only under the alternative. Biometrika 64(2):247–254

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Destek MA (2017) Biomass energy consumption and economic growth: evidence from top 10 biomass consumer countries. Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy 12(10):853–858

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dogan E (2014) Energy consumption and economic growth: evidence from low-income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Energy Econ Policy 4(2):154

    Google Scholar 

  • Dogan E (2015a) Revisiting the relationship between natural gas consumption and economic growth in Turkey. Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy 10(4):361–370

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dogan E (2015b) The relationship between economic growth and electricity consumption from renewable and non-renewable sources: a study of Turkey. Renew Sust Energ Rev 52:534–546

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dogan E (2016) Analyzing the linkage between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth by considering structural break in time-series data. Renew Energy 99:1126–1136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dogan E, Seker F (2016a) The influence of real output, renewable and non-renewable energy, trade and financial development on carbon emissions in the top renewable energy countries. Renew Sust Energ Rev 60:1074–1085

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dogan E, Seker F (2016b) Determinants of CO2 emissions in the European Union: the role of renewable and non-renewable energy. Renew Energy 94:429–439

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dogan E, Sebri M, Turkekul B (2016) Exploring the relationship between agricultural electricity consumption and output: New evidence from Turkish regional data. Energy Policy 95:370–377

  • Dogan E, Altinoz B, Madaleno M, Taskin D (2020) The impact of renewable energy consumption to economic growth: a replication and extension of. Energy Econ 90:104866

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dong XY, Ran Q, Hao Y (2019) On the nonlinear relationship between energy consumption and economic development in China: new evidence from panel data threshold estimations. Qual Quant 53(4):1837–1857

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dritsaki M, Dritsaki C (2020) Trade openness and economic growth: a panel data analysis of Baltic countries. Asian Economic and Financial Review 10(3):313–324

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Esen Ö, Bayrak M (2017) Does more energy consumption support economic growth in net energy-importing countries? Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science

  • Fan Y, Gençay R (2010) Unit root tests with wavelets. Econometric Theory 26:1305–1331

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Farhani S, Chaibi A, Rault C (2014) CO2 emissions, output, energy consumption, and trade in Tunisia. Econ Model 38:426–434

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gençay R, Selçuk F, Whitcher BJ (2001) An introduction to wavelets and other filtering methods in finance and economics. Elsevier

  • Goupillaud P, Grossmann A, Morlet J (1984) Cycle-octave and related transforms in seismic signal analysis. Geoexploration 23(1):85–102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Graham M, Kiviaho J, Nikkinen J (2012) Integration of 22 emerging stock markets: a three-dimensional analysis. Glob Financ J 23(1):34–47

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gries T, Redlin M (2012) Trade openness and economic growth: a panel causality analysis. In International conferences of RCIE, KIET, and APEA, March (pp. 16-18)

  • Grinsted A, Moore JC, Jevrejeva S (2004) Application of the cross wavelet transform and wavelet coherence to geophysical time series. Nonlinear process geophys 11(5/6):561–566

  • Grossman G, Helpman E (1991) Innovation and growth in the global economy Cambridge. Mass. and London

  • Haar A (1910) On the theory of orthogonal function systems. MathematischeAnnalen 69(3):331–371

    Google Scholar 

  • Haider A, Bashir A, Husnain MIU (2020) Impact of agricultural land use and economic growth on nitrous oxide emissions: evidence from developed and developing countries Science of The Total Environment:140421

  • Haider A, Rankaduwa W, Shaheen F (2021) Nexus between nitrous oxide emissions and agricultural land use in agrarian economy: an ARDL bounds testing approach. Sustainability, 13(5), 2808.

  • Heidari H, Katircioğlu ST, Saeidpour L (2015) Economic growth, CO2 emissions, and energy consumption in the five ASEAN countries. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 64:785–791

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hollebeek E, Buik N, van Dijk M (2018) Increasing the application of geothermal energy in the greenhouse sector; a case study from the Netherlands. In 80th EAGE Conference and Exhibition 2018 (Vol. 2018, No. 1, pp. 1-5). European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers

  • Huchet-Bourdon M, Le Mouël C, Vijil M (2018) The relationship between trade openness and economic growth: some new insights on the openness measurement issue. World Econ 41(1):59–76

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Husnain MIU, Haider A, Khan MA (2021) Does the environmental Kuznets curve reliably explain a developmental issue? Environ Sci Pollut Res 28(9):11469–11485

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ike GN, Usman O, Alola AA, Sarkodie SA (2020) Environmental quality effects of income, energy prices and trade: the role of renewable energy consumption in G-7 countries. Sci Total Environ 721:137813

  • Ito K (2017) CO2 emissions, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, and economic growth: evidence from panel data for developing countries. Int Econ 151:1–6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jalil A, Mahmud SF (2009) Environment Kuznets curve for CO2 emissions: a cointegration analysis for China. Energy Policy 37:5167–5172

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jayanthakumaran K, Verma R, Liu Y (2012) CO2 emissions, energy consumption, trade and income: a comparative analysis of China and India. Energy Policy 42:450–460

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jebli MB, Youssef SB, Ozturk I (2016) Testing environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis: the role of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and trade in OECD countries. Ecol Indic 60:824–831

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jedwab R, Vollrath D (2015) Urbanization without growth in historical perspective. Explorations in Economic History 58:1–21.

  • Jumbe CB (2004) Cointegration and causality between electricity consumption and GDP: empirical evidence from Malawi. Energy Econ 26(1):61–68

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kalmaz DB, Kirikkaleli D (2019) Modeling CO 2 emissions in an emerging market: empirical finding from ARDL-based bounds and wavelet coherence approaches. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26(5):5210–5220

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Khan MA, Ali A, Husnain MIU, Zakria M (2018) Analysis of power plants in China Pakistan economic corridor (CPEC): an application of analytic network process (ANP). Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy 10:065905

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kim HJ, Siegmund D (1989) The likelihood ratio test for a change-point in simple linear regression. Biometrika 76(3):409–423

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kraft J, Kraft A (1978) On the relationship between energy and GNP. The Journal of Energy and Development, 401-403

  • Levine R, Renelt D (1992) A sensitivity analysis of cross-country growth regressions. The American economic review, 942-963

  • Li Q, Racine JS (2007) Nonparametric econometrics: theory and practice. Princeton University Press

  • Lim K, Lee H, Liew K (2003) International diversification benefits in ASEAN stock markets: a revisit. Labuan School of International Business and Finance. University Malaysia, University Putra Malaysia

    Google Scholar 

  • López RA (2005) Trade and growth: reconciling the macroeconomic and microeconomic evidence. J Econ Surv 19(4):623–648

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lucas RE Jr (1988) On the mechanics of economic development. J Monet Econ 22(1):3–42

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mallat SG (1989) A theory for multiresolution signal decomposition: the wavelet representation. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 11(7):674–693

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marinaș MC, Dinu M, Socol AG, Socol C (2018) Renewable energy consumption and economic growth. Causality relationship in Central and Eastern European countries. PLoS One 13(10):e0202951

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mehrara M (2007) Testing the purchasing power parity in oil-exporting countries. OPEC Rev 31(4):249–260

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Menegaki AN, Tugcu CT (2016) Rethinking the energy-growth nexus: proposing an index of sustainable economic welfare for Sub-Saharan Africa. Energy Res Soc Sci 17:147–159

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nick TG (2007) Descriptive statistics. Topics in biostatistics:33–52

  • Nyiwul L (2017) Economic performance, environmental concerns, and renewable energy consumption: drivers of renewable energy development in Sub-Sahara Africa. Clean Techn Environ Policy 19(2):437–450

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Odugbesan JA, Rjoub H (2020) Relationship among economic growth, energy consumption, CO2 emission, and urbanization: evidence from MINT countries. SAGE Open 10(2):2158244020914648

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Omri A (2014) An international literature survey on energy-economic growth nexus: evidence from country-specific studies. Renew Sust Energ Rev 38:951–959

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ozturk I (2010) A literature survey on energy–growth nexus. Energy Policy 38(1):340–349

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Phillips PC, Perron P (1988) Testing for a unit root in time series regression. Biometrika 75(2):335–346

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Poon SH, Rockinger M, Tawn J (2003) Modelling extreme-value dependence in international stock markets. StatisticaSinica, pp 929–953

  • Ramsey FP (1928) A mathematical theory of saving. Econ J 38(152):543–559

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ransom SM, Eikenberry SS, Middleditch J (2002) Fourier techniques for very long astrophysical time-series analysis. The Astronomical Journal 124(3):1788

  • Razali R, Shafie A, Hassan AR, Khan H (2015) A multivariate study of energy consumption, urbanisation, trade openness and economic growth in Malaysia. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 10(21):10275–10280

    Google Scholar 

  • Romer PM (1986) Increasing returns and long-run growth. Journal of Political Economy, l94:1002-1037

  • Ruddiman WF (2001) Earth’s climate: past and future. Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Saboori B, Rasoulinezhad E, Sung J (2017) The nexus of oil consumption, CO 2 emissions and economic growth in China, Japan and South Korea. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(8):7436–7455

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sadorsky P (2011) Trade and energy consumption in the Middle East. Energy Econ 33(5):739–749

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saidi K, Hammami S (2015) The impact of CO2 emissions and economic growth on energy consumption in 58 countries. Energy Rep 1:62–70

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sbia R, Shahbaz M, Hamdi H (2014) A contribution of foreign direct investment, clean energy, trade openness, carbon emissions and economic growth to energy demand in UAE. Econ Model 36:191–197

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sbia R, Shahbaz M, Ozturk I (2017) Economic growth, financial development, urbanisation and electricity consumption nexus in UAE. Economic research-Ekonomskaistraživanja 30(1):527–549

    Google Scholar 

  • Sebri M, Ben-Salha O (2014) On the causal dynamics between economic growth, renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions and trade openness: fresh evidence from BRICS countries. Renew Sust Energ Rev 39:14–23

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shahbaz M, Feridun M (2012) Electricity consumption and economic growth empirical evidence from Pakistan. Qual Quant 46(5):1583–1599

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shahbaz M, Lean HH (2012) Does financial development increase energy consumption? The role of industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia. Energy Policy 40:473–479

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shahbaz M, Zeshan M, Afza T (2012) Is energy consumption effective to spur economic growth in Pakistan? New evidence from bounds test to level relationships and Granger causality tests. Econ Model 29(6):2310–2319

  • Shahbaz M, Khan S, Tahir MI (2013) The dynamic links between energy consumption, economic growth, financial development and trade in China: fresh evidence from multivariate framework analysis. Energy Econ 40:8–21

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shahbaz M, Nasreen S, Ling CH, Sbia R (2014) Causality between trade openness and energy consumption: what causes what in high, middle and low income countries. Energy Policy 70:126–143

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shahbaz M, Shafiullah M, Khalid U, Song M (2020) A nonparametric analysis of energy environmental Kuznets Curve in Chinese Provinces. Energy Economics, 104814

  • Siddique HMA, Majeed MT (2015) Energy consumption, economic growth, trade and financial development nexus in South Asia. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (PJCSS) 9(2):658–682

    Google Scholar 

  • Solow RM (1956) A contribution to the theory of economic growth. Q J Econ 70(1):65–94

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Soytas U, Sari R (2007) The relationship between energy and production: evidence from Turkish manufacturing industry. Energy Econ 29(6):1151–1165

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stern DI (1997) Limits to substitution and irreversibility in production and consumption: a neoclassical interpretation of ecological economics. Ecol Econ 21(3):197–215

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stock JH, Watson MW (1986) Does GNP have a unit root? Econ Lett 22(2-3):147–151

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tamba JG, Nsouandélé JL, Lélé AF (2017) Gasoline consumption and economic growth: evidence from Cameroon. Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy 12(8):685–691

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tiba S, Omri A, Frikha M (2016) The four-way linkages between renewable energy, environmental quality, trade and economic growth: a comparative analysis between high and middle-income countries. Energy Systems 7(1):103–144

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tiwari AK (2012) An empirical investigation of causality between producers’ price and consumers’ price indices in Australia in frequency domain. Econ Model 29(5):1571–1578

  • Tiwari AK, Bhanja N, Dar AB, Islam F (2015) Time–frequency relationship between share prices and exchange rates in India: evidence from continuous wavelets. Empir Econ 48(2):699–714

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Torrence C, Compo GP (1998) A practical guide to wavelet analysis. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 79(1):61–78

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Torrence C, Webster PJ (1999) Interdecadal changes in the ENSO–monsoon system. J Clim 12(8):2679–2690

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wagner M (2015) The environmental Kuznets curve, cointegration and nonlinearity. J Appl Econ 30(6):948–967

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang Q, Wang L (2020) Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries: a nonlinear panel data analysis. Energy 207:118200

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang Q, Zhang F (2021a) Free trade and renewable energy: a cross-income levels empirical investigation using two trade openness measures. Renew Energy 168:1027–1039

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang Q, Zhang F (2021b) The effects of trade openness on decoupling carbon emissions from economic growth–evidence from 182 countries. J Clean Prod 279:123838

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wang Y, Wang Y, Zhou J, Zhu X, Lu G (2011) Energy consumption and economic growth in China: a multivariate causality test. Energy Policy 39(7):4399–4406

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang S, Li G, Fang C (2018) Urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions: empirical evidence from countries with different income levels. Renew Sust Energ Rev 81:2144–2159

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang Q, Su M, Li R, Ponce P (2019) The effects of energy prices, urbanization and economic growth on energy consumption per capita in 186 countries. J Clean Prod 225:1017–1032

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yazdi SK, Mastorakis NIKOS (2014) Renewable, CO2 emissions, trade openness, and economic growth in Iran. Latest Trend in Energy, Enviroment and Development, c 25:360–370

    Google Scholar 

  • Yu ES, Choi JY (1985) The causal relationship between energy and GNP: an international comparison. The Journal of Energy and Development, 249-272

  • Zakaria M, Tariq S, Husnain MIU (2020) Socio-economic, macroeconomic, demographic, and environmental variables as determinants of child mortality in South Asia. Environ Sci Pollut Res 27(1):954–964

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zarsky L, Halos S (1999) Untangling the evidence about foreign direct investment and the environment. In OECD Conference on Foreign Direct Investment and the Environment. The Hague.

  • Zeren F, Akkuş HT (2020) The relationship between renewable energy consumption and trade openness: new evidence from emerging economies. Renew Energy 147:322–329

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang C, Xu J (2012) Retesting the causality between energy consumption and GDP in China: evidence from sectoral and regional analyses using dynamic panel data. Energy Econ 34(6):1782–1789

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang Q, Liao H, Hao Y (2018) Does one path fit all? An empirical study on the relationship between energy consumption and economic development for individual Chinese provinces. Energy 150:527–543

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

M.I.H. conceived the concept and wrote “Introduction,” “Literature review,” and “Conclusion” sections. N. collected the data and carried out the analysis and wrote the “Research methodology and data” section. M.A.K. wrote the “Results and discussion” section.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain.

Ethics declarations

Ethical approval

This research article follows the ethical standard of the institution.

Consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent to publish

Not applicable

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Responsible Editor: Ilhan Ozturk

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Appendices

Appendix 1

 

% share in world GDP

% of world population

% share in primary energy consumption

% share in CO2 emission

% share in global exports

% share in global imports

China

15.12

18.47

24.60

13.07

10.86

10.65

USA

24.08

4.25

16.43

25.11

10.27

13.16

India

3.28

17.70

5.91

3.19

2.20

2.67

Russia

1.95

1.87

5.18

7.61

2.08

1.44

Japan

6.02

1.62

3.24

3.97

3.75

3.79

Canada

2.04

0.48

2.28

2.02

2.25

2.44

Germany

4.56

1.07

2.12

5.67

7.66

6.81

Brazil

2.54

2.73

2.15

0.93

1.15

1.14

South Korea

1.89

0.66

2.15

1.17

2.93

2.66

Iran

0.56

1.08

2.14

1.11

0.55

 

Total

62.04

49.93

66.21

63.85

43.70

44.76

Sources:

Percentage share in world GDP by Worldometer, (2017)

https://www.worldometers.info/gdp/

Percentage world population by worldometer, (2017)

https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/population-by-country/

Percentage share in primary energy consumption, (2019)

https://www.statista.com/statistics/263455/primary-energy-consumption-of-selected-countries/

Percentage share in CO2 emission, (2018)

https://ourworldindata.org/co2-and-other-greenhouse-gas-emissions#co2-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-country-profiles

Percentage share in global exports & imports, (2018)

https://www.theglobaleconomy.com/rankings/share_world_exports/

Appendix 2. Wavelet transformed coherence among EC and T

figure a

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Husnain, M.I.u., Nasrullah & Khan, M.A. Testing dependence patterns of energy consumption with economic expansion and trade openness through wavelet transformed coherence in top energy-consuming countries. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 49788–49807 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14046-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14046-7

Keyword

Navigation