New insights about human tick infestation features: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Abstract

There are many studies that provide information regarding ticks infesting humans. However, there is no a meta-analysis about the global ranks of tick infestation rates and records, global monthly tick bites and annually and periodically trends of tick infestation rates, and the global tick infestation rates among years, mounts, regions, and countries. The study provides new insights about the above objectives in a global context and therefore performed. After a preliminary review of the 610 papers representing objective areas, 241 were selected for detailed meta-analysis. In general, the global ranks of tick species were, respectively, between 0.01–85.4% and 1–53 for human infestation rates and records. Twenty-six and sixteen tick species have more than 10% and 10 records of human tick infestation rates and records, respectively. It seems these tick species tend to be more blood-feeding on humans and as a result can be more dangerous to humans. The outcome of study demonstrated that there is no difference between seasonal human tick infestation patterns in the northern and southern hemispheres. The most global monthly mean tick bites in humans were observed in June then followed in July, August, May, and September. The global annually and periodically trends of tick infestation rates in humans exhibited decreasing trends over the past decades suggesting the preventive measure to prohibit human tick infestation have been successful. It seems that the ranks of tick infestation rates and records in humans may be as two indexes to illustrate the degree of importance of tick infesting humans.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Availability of data and materials

The authors declare that they have satisfy for availability of data and materials online.

References

  1. Abbas T, Younus M, Muhammad SA (2015) Spatial cluster analysis of human cases of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever reported in Pakistan. Infect Dis Poverty 4:9

    Google Scholar 

  2. Abedi-Astaneh F, Hajjaran H, Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Mohebali M, Shirzadi MR, Rassi Y, Akhavan AA, Mahmoudi B (2016) Risk mapping and situational analysis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Central Iran: a GIS-based survey. PLoS One 11:e0161317

    Google Scholar 

  3. Andersson MO, Marga G, Banu T, Dobler G, Chitimia-Dobler L (2018) Tick-borne pathogens in tick species infesting humans in Sibiu County, central Romania. Parasitol Res 117:1591–1597

    Google Scholar 

  4. Ariyarathne S, Apanaskevich DA, Amarasinghe PH, Rajakaruna RS (2016) Diversity and distribution of tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with human otoacariasis and socio-ecological risk factors of tick infestations in Sri Lanka. Exp Appl Acarol 70:99–123

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Bakirci S, Aysul N, Eren H, Unlu A, Karagenc T (2014) Diversity of ticks biting humans in Aydın province of Turkey. Ank Univ Vet Fak Derg 61:93–98

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bakirci S, Aysul N, Bilgic HB, Hacilarlioglu S, Eren H, Karagenc T (2019) Tick bites on humans in southwestern region of Turkey: species diversity. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 43:30–35

    Google Scholar 

  7. Barker SC, Walker AR (2014) Ticks of Australia. The species that infest domestic animals and humans. Zootaxa 3816:1–144

    Google Scholar 

  8. Beati L, Nava S, Burkman EJ, Barros-Battesti DM, Labruna MB, Guglielmone AA, Cáceres AG, Guzmán-Cornejo CM, León R, Durden LA (2013) Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787)(Acari: Ixodidae), the Cayenne tick: phylogeography and evidence for allopatric speciation. BMC Evol Biol 13:267 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1413/1267

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bermúdez CSE, Castro A, Esser H, Liefting Y, García G, Miranda RJ (2012) Ticks (Ixodida) on humans from central Panama, Panama (2010–2011). Exp Appl Acarol 58:81–88

    Google Scholar 

  10. Beyhan YE, Mungan M, Babur C (2016) The species of ticks bites on human and their seasonal distribution in Ankara, Turkey. Ankara Univ Vet Fak Derg 63:115–119

    Google Scholar 

  11. Brahma RK, Dixit V, Sangwan AK, Doley R (2014) Identification and characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Haemaphysalis bispinosa ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of North East India by ITS2 and 16S rDNA sequences and morphological analysis. Exp Appl Acarol 62:253–265

    Google Scholar 

  12. Briciu VT, Titilincu A, Tatulescu DF, Carstina D, Lefkaditis M, Mihalca AD (2011) First survey on hard ticks (Ixodidae) collected from humans in Romania: possible risks for tick-borne diseases. Exp Appl Acarol 54:199–204

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Bursali A, Tekin S, Orhan M, Keskin A, Ozkan M (2010) Ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting humans in Tokat Province of Turkey: Species diversity and seasonal activity. J Vector Ecol 35:180–186

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bursali A, Tekin S, Keskin A, Ekici M, Dundar E (2011) Species diversity of Ixodid Ticks feeding on humans in Amasya, Turkey: Seasonal abundance and presence of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus. J Med Entomol 48:85–93

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Bursali A, Keskin A, Tekin S (2013) Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) infesting humans in the provinces of Kelkit Valley, a Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever endemic region in Turkey. Exp Appl Acarol 59:507–515

    Google Scholar 

  16. Bursali A, Tekin S, Keskin A, Ekici M, Dundar E (2014) Species diversity of Ixodid ticks feeding on humans in Amasya, Turkey: seasonal abundance and presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. J Med Entomol 48:85–93

    Google Scholar 

  17. Bursalı A, Keskin A, Keskin A, Kul Köprülü T, Tekin Ş (2017) Investigation of the presence of rickettsiae in ticks parasitizing humans in Corum Region. Turkish Bul Hygiene Exp Biol 74:293–298

    Google Scholar 

  18. Cakabay T, Gokdogan O, Kocyigit M (2016) Human otoacariasis: demographic and clinical outcomes in patients with ear-canal ticks and a review of literature. J Otol 11:111–117

    Google Scholar 

  19. Campbell BS, Bowles DE (1994) Human tick bite records in a United States air force population, 1989–1992: implications for tick-borne disease risk. J Wilderness Med 5:405–412

    Google Scholar 

  20. Choi JY, Cho BK, Lee YB, Yu DS, Jun BC, Lee IY, Kim J-W (2018) An uncommon presentation of human otoacariasis by Haemaphysalis longicornis. Ann Dermatol 30:348–350

    Google Scholar 

  21. Dantas-Torres F, Figueredo LA, Brandão-Filho SP (2006) Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), the brown dog tick, parasitizing humans in Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 39:64–67

    Google Scholar 

  22. Davari B, Alam FN, Nasirian H, Nazari M, Abdigoudarzi M, Salehzadeh A (2017) Seasonal distribution and faunistic of ticks in the Alashtar county (Lorestan Province), Iran. Pan African Med J 27:1–16

    Google Scholar 

  23. Eisen L (2020) Stemming the rising tide of human-biting ticks and tickborne diseases, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 26:641–647

    Google Scholar 

  24. Estrada-Peña A, Jongejan F (1999) Ticks feeding on humans: a review of records on human-biting Ixodoidea with special reference to pathogen transmission. Exp Appl Acarol 23:685–715

    Google Scholar 

  25. Falco RC, Fish D (1988) Ticks parasitizing humans in a Lyme disease endemic area of southern New York State. Am J Epidemiol 128:1146–1152

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Faulde MK, Rutenfranz M, Hepke J, Rogge M, Görner A, Keth A (2014) Human tick infestation pattern, tick-bite rate, and associated Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection risk during occupational tick exposure at the Seedorf military training area, northwestern Germany. Ticks Tick-Borne Dis 5:594–599

    Google Scholar 

  27. Felz MW, Durden LA (1999) Attachment sites of four tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing humans in Georgia and South Carolina. J Med Entomol 36:361–364

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Felz MW, Durden LA, Oliver JH Jr (1996) Ticks parasitizing humans in Georgia and South Carolina. J Parasitol 82:505–508

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Fischhoff IR, Bowden SE, Keesing F, Ostfeld RS (2019) Systematic review and meta-analysis of tick-borne disease risk factors in residential yards, neighborhoods, and beyond. BMC Infect Dis 19:1–11

    Google Scholar 

  30. Franke J, Kipp S, Flügel C, Dorn W (2008) Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in ticks feeding on humans in Thuringia/Germany. Int J Med Microbiol 298:188–192

    Google Scholar 

  31. Garcia GR, Gardinassi LG, Ribeiro JM, Anatriello E, Ferreira BR, Moreira HNS, Mafra C, Martins MM, Szabó MPJ, de Miranda-Santos IKF (2014) The sialotranscriptome of Amblyomma triste, Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma cajennense ticks, uncovered by 454-based RNA-seq. Parasit Vectors 7:430

    Google Scholar 

  32. Gargili A, Kar S, Yilmazer N, Cerit C, Sonmez G, Sahin F, Alp H, Vatansever Z (2010) Evaluation of ticks biting humans in Thrace province, Turkey. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 16:141–146

    Google Scholar 

  33. Gargili A, Kar S, Yilmazer N, Ergonul O, Vatansever Z (2011) Different abundances of human-biting ticks in two neighboring provinces in Turkey. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 17:93–97

    Google Scholar 

  34. Gargili A, Palomar AM, Midilli K, Portillo A, Kar S, Oteo JA (2012) Rickettsia species in ticks removed from humans in Istanbul, Turkey. Vector Bborne Zoonotic Dis 12:938–941

    Google Scholar 

  35. Gofton AW, Doggett S, Ratchford A, Oskam CL, Paparini A, Ryan U, Irwin P (2015) Bacterial profiling reveals novel “Ca. Neoehrlichia”, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma species in Australian human-biting ticks. PLoS One 10:e0145449. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0145449

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. González-Álvarez VH, de la Cruz-Ramos JM, Pérez-Muñoz R, Siller-Rodríguez QK, Ortega-Morales AI (2020) The brown dog tick infesting humans in North-Central Mexico: a tick-borne disease risk. Folia Entomológica Mexicana (Nueva Serie) 6:9–12

    Google Scholar 

  37. Guglielmone AA, Robbins RG (2018) Hard Ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae) Parasitizing Humans. Springer, New York

    Google Scholar 

  38. Guglielmone AA, Mangold AJ, Vinabal AE (1991) Ticks (Ixodidae) parasitizing humans in four provinces of north-western Argentina. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 85:539–542

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Guglielmone AA, Beati L, Barros-Battesti DM, Labruna MB, Nava S, Venzal JM, Mangold AJ, Szabó MPJ, Martins JR, González-Acuña D, Estrada-Peña A (2006) Ticks (Ixodidae) on humans in South America. Exp Appl Acarol 40:83–100

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Haddad JV, Haddad MR, Santos M, Cardoso JLC (2018) Skin manifestations of tick bites in humans. An Bras Dermatol 93:251–255

    Google Scholar 

  41. Horak I, Fourie L, Heyne H, Walker JB, Needham G (2002) Ixodid ticks feeding on humans in South Africa: with notes on preferred hosts, geographic distribution, seasonal occurrence and transmission of pathogens. Exp Appl Acarol 27:113–136

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Huang R, Zhou K, Cao L, Liu H, Shan M (2019) Infection caused by tick bites in children: report of three cases and literature review. Chin Gen Pract 22:4011–4014

    Google Scholar 

  43. Kakeh-Khani A, Nazari M, Nasirian H (2020) Insecticide resistance studies on German cockroach (Blattella germanica) strains to malathion, propoxur and lambdacyhalothrin. Chulalongkorn Med J 64:357–365

    Google Scholar 

  44. Kar S, Dervis E, Akın A, Ergonul O, Gargili A (2013) Preferences of different tick species for human hosts in Turkey. Exp Appl Acarol 61:349–355

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Kar S, Yilmazer N, Akyildiz G, Gargili A (2017) The human infesting ticks in the city of Istanbul and its vicinity with reference to a new species for Turkey. Systematic Appl Acarol 22:2245–2256

    Google Scholar 

  46. Karaer Z, Guven E, Nalbantoglu S, Kar S, Orkun O, Ekdal K, Kocak A, Akcay A (2011) Ticks on humans in Ankara, Turkey. Exp Appl Acarol 54:85–91

    Google Scholar 

  47. Karasartova D, Gureser AS, Gokce T, Celebi B, Yapar D, Keskin A, Celik S, Ece Y, Erenler AK, Usluca S, Mumcuoglu KY, Taylan-Ozkan A (2018) Bacterial and protozoal pathogens found in ticks collected from humans in Corum province of Turkey. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12:e0006395

    Google Scholar 

  48. Kaur N, Prasher P, Kumar K, Dhingra S (2019) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Arachnida: Ixodidae) larvae infestation of human eyelids. A rare case. Acarologia 59:21–25

    Google Scholar 

  49. Keskin A, Keskin A, Bursali A, Tekin S (2015) Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) parasitizing humans in Corum and Yozgat provinces, Turkey. Exp Appl Acarol 67:607–616

    Google Scholar 

  50. Keskin A, Bulut YE, Keskin A, Bursali A (2017) Tick attachment sites in humans living in the Tokat province of Turkey. Turk Hij Den Biyol Derg 74:121–128

    Google Scholar 

  51. Khasnatinov MA, Liapunov AV, Manzarova EL, Kulakova NV, Petrova IV, Danchinova GA (2016) The diversity and prevalence of hard ticks attacking human hosts in Eastern Siberia (Russian Federation) with first description of invasion of non-endemic tick species. Parasitol Res 115:501–510

    Google Scholar 

  52. Lamattina D, Nava S (2016) Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina. Medicina (B Aires) 76:89–92

    Google Scholar 

  53. Liyanaarachchi DR, Rajakaruna RS, Dikkumbura AW, Rajapakse RP (2015) Ticks infesting wild and domestic animals and humans of Sri Lanka with new host records. Acta Trop 142:64–70

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. Liyanaarachchi D, Rajakaruna R, Rajapakse R (2016) Spotted fever group rickettsia in ticks infesting humans, wild and domesticated animals of Sri Lanka: one health approach. Ceylon J Sci (Biol Sci) 44:67–74

    Google Scholar 

  55. Manfredi M, Dini V, Piacenza S, Genchi C (1999) Tick species parasitizing people in an area endemic for tick-borne diseases in north-western Italy. Parassitologia 41:555–560

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. Martínez-Girón R, Martínez-Torre C, van Woerden HC (2017) The prevalence of protozoa in the gut of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) with special reference to Lophomonas blattarum. Parasitol Res 116:3205–3210

    Google Scholar 

  57. Martins TF, Barbieri ARM, Costa FB, Terassini FA, Camargo LMA, Peterka CRL, de C Pacheco R, Dias RA, Nunes PH, Marcili A, Scofield A, Campos AK, Horta MC, Guilloux AGA, Benatti HR, Ramirez DG, Barros-Battesti DM, Labruna MB (2016) Geographical distribution of Amblyomma cajennense (sensu lato) ticks (Parasitiformes: Ixodidae) in Brazil, with description of the nymph of A. cajennense (sensu stricto). Parasit Vectors 9:186–186

    Google Scholar 

  58. Martins TF, Luz HR, Faccini JLH, Labruna MB (2017) Life-cycle of Amblyomma oblongoguttatum (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions. Exp Appl Acarol 71:415–424

    Google Scholar 

  59. Moher D, Shamseer L, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Liberati A, Petticrew M, Shekelle P, Stewart LA (2015) Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Syst Rev 4:1 http://www.systematicreviewsjournal.com/content/4/1/1

    Google Scholar 

  60. Nasirian H (2017a) Contamination of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria) to medically fungi: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Mycol Méd 27:427–448

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. Nasirian H (2017b) Infestation of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria) in the human dwelling environments: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Trop 167:86–98

    Google Scholar 

  62. Nasirian H (2019a) Contamination of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria) by medically important bacteriae: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Entomol 56:1534–1554

    Google Scholar 

  63. Nasirian H (2019b) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) seroprevalence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Trop 196:102–120

    Google Scholar 

  64. Nasirian H (2019c) Recent cockroach bacterial contamination trend in the human dwelling environments: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Bangladesh J Med Sci 18:540–545

    Google Scholar 

  65. Nasirian H (2020) New aspects about Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) cases and associated fatality trends: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 69:101429. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2020.101429

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Nasirian H, Ladonni H (2006) Artificial bloodfeeding of Anopheles stephensi on a membrane apparatus with human whole blood. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 22:54–56

    Google Scholar 

  67. Nasirian H, Salehzadeh A (2019) Control of cockroaches (Blattaria) in sewers: a practical approach systematic review. J Med Entomol 56:181–191

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. Nasirian H, Ladonni H, Poudat A (2008) Mass rearing of Anopheles stephensi on human blood by artificial feeding under laboratory conditions. Bimonthly J Hormozgan Univ Med Sci 12:137–142

    Google Scholar 

  69. Nasirian H, Sadeghi SMT, Vazirianzadeh B, Moosa-Kazemi SH (2014a) New record of Aedes vittatus and Culiseta subochrea (Diptera: Culicidae) and their distribution from Shadegan Wetland, South Western Iran. J Entomol Zool Stud 2:271–275

    Google Scholar 

  70. Nasirian H, Vazirianzadeh B, Taghi Sadeghi SM, Nazmara S (2014b) Culiseta subochrea as a bioindicator of metal contamination in Shadegan International Wetland, Iran (Diptera: Culicidae). J Insect Sci 14:258

    Google Scholar 

  71. Nava S, Caparros JA, Mangold AJ, Guglielmone AA (2006) Ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) infesting humans in Northwestern Cordoba Province, Argentina. Medicina (B Aires) 66:225–228

    Google Scholar 

  72. Nava S, Beati L, Labruna MB, Cáceres AG, Mangold AJ, Guglielmone AA (2014) Reassessment of the taxonomic status of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) with the description of three new species, Amblyomma tonelliae n. sp., Amblyomma interandinum n. sp. and Amblyomma patinoi n. sp., and reinstatement of Amblyomma mixtum Koch, 1844, and Amblyomma sculptum Berlese, 1888 (Ixodida: Ixodidae). Ticks Tick-Borne Dis 5:252–276

    Google Scholar 

  73. Nava S, Estrada-Peña A, Petney T, Beati L, Labruna MB, Szabó MP, Venzal JM, Mastropaolo M, Mangold AJ, Guglielmone AA (2015) The taxonomic status of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806). Vet Parasitol 208:2–8

    Google Scholar 

  74. Nava S, Beati L, Venzal JM, Labruna MB, Szabó MP, Petney T, Saracho-Bottero MN, Tarragona EL, Dantas-Torres F, Silva MMS (2018) Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806): neotype designation, morphological re-description of all parasitic stages and molecular characterization. Ticks Tick-Borne Dis 9:1573–1585

    Google Scholar 

  75. Otranto D, Dantas-Torres F, Giannelli A, Latrofa MS, Cascio A, Cazzin S, Ravagnan S, Montarsi F, Zanzani SA, Manfredi MT, Capelli G (2014) Ticks infesting humans in Italy and associated pathogens. Parasit Vectors 7:328

    Google Scholar 

  76. Över L, İnceboz T, Yapar N, Bakirci S, Günay T, Akisü Ç (2012) Investigation of the cases presenting to Dokuz Eylul University hospital with tick bites. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 36:75–81

    Google Scholar 

  77. Papa A, Chaligiannis I, Xanthopoulou K, Papaioakim M, Papanastasiou S, Sotiraki S (2011) Ticks parasitizing humans in Greece. Vector-Borne Zoonotic Dis 11:539–542

    Google Scholar 

  78. Papa A, Xanthopoulou K, Kotriotsiou T, Papaioakim M, Sotiraki S, Chaligiannis I, Maltezos E (2016) Rickettsia species in human-parasitizing ticks in Greece. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 110:299–304

    Google Scholar 

  79. Parola P, Raoult D (2001) Ticks and tickborne bacterial diseases in humans: an emerging infectious threat. Clin Infect Dis 32:897–928

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  80. Poudat A, Nasirian H (2007) Prevalence of pediculosis and scabies in the prisoners of Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan province, Iran. Pak J Biol Sci 10:3967–3969

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. Pritt BS (2019) Haemaphysalis longicornis is in the United States and biting humans: where do we go from here? Clin Infect Dis. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz451

  82. Ramos VN, Osava CF, Piovezan U, Szabó MP (2014) Ticks on humans in the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil. Ticks Tick-Borne Dis 5:497–499

    Google Scholar 

  83. Rodríguez-Vivas RI, Apanaskevich DA, Ojeda-Chi MM, Trinidad-Martínez I, Reyes-Novelo E, Esteve-Gassent MD, Pérez de León AA (2016) Ticks collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in Yucatan, Mexico. Vet Parasitol 215:106–113

    Google Scholar 

  84. Sajid MS, Kausar A, Iqbal A, Abbas H, Iqbal Z, Jones MK (2018) An insight into the ecobiology, vector significance and control of Hyalomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae): a review. Acta Trop 187:229–239

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. Salehzadeh A, Darvish Z, Davari B, Nasirian H (2020) The efficacy of baits containing abamectin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid and pyriproxyfen+ abamectin against Blattella germanica (L.)(Blattaria: Blattellidae), the German cockroach. African Entomol 28:225–237

    Google Scholar 

  86. Saracho-Bottero MN, Tarragona EL, Sebastian PS, Venzal JM, Mangold AJ, Guglielmone AA, Nava S (2018) Ticks infesting cattle and humans in the Yungas Biogeographic Province of Argentina, with notes on the presence of tick-borne bacteria. Exp Appl Acarol 74:107–116

    Google Scholar 

  87. Sedaghat MM, Sarani M, Chinikar S, Telmadarraiy Z, Moghaddam AS, Azam K, Nowotny N, Fooks AR, Shahhosseini N (2017) Vector prevalence and detection of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in Golestan Province, Iran. J Vector Borne Dis 54:353–357

    Google Scholar 

  88. Shayeghi M, Piazak N, Gollampuor A, Nasirian H, Abolhassani M (2016) Tick-borne relapsing fever in Sabzevar (Khorasan Razavy province), North-Eastern Iran. Bangladesh J Med Sci 15:551–555

    Google Scholar 

  89. Soleimani-Ahmadi M, Nasirian H, Gheshmi AN, Ershadi MY (2009) Human extensive head skin myiasis. Iran J Public Health 38:134–138

    Google Scholar 

  90. Sosa-Gutierrez CG, Vargas-Sandoval M, Torres J, Gordillo-Pérez G (2016) Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in questing ticks, removed from humans and animals in Mexico. J Vet Sci 17:353–360

    Google Scholar 

  91. Soundararajan C, Nagarajan K, Prakash MA (2018) Tick infestation in human beings in the Nilgiris and Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu, India. J Parasit Dis 42:50–54

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. Szabó MPJ, Labruna MB, Castagnolli KC, Garcia MV, Pinter A, Veronez VA, Magalhães GM, Castro MB, Vogliotti A (2006) Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing humans in an Atlantic rainforest reserve of Southeastern Brazil with notes on host suitability. Exp Appl Acarol 39:339–346

    Google Scholar 

  93. Szabó MPJ, Martins TF, Barbieri ARM, Costa FB, Soares HS, Tolesano-Pascoli GV, Torga K, Saraiva DG, do Nascimento Ramos V, Osava CF (2020) Ticks biting humans in the Brazilian savannah: attachment sites and exposure risk in relation to species, life stage and season. Ticks Tick-Borne Dis 11:101328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.102019.101328

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Telmadarraiy Z, Nasirian H, Vatandoost H, Abuolhassani M, Tavakoli M, Zarei Z, Banafshi O, Rafinejad J, Salarielac S, Faghihi F (2007) Comparative susceptibility of cypermethrin in Ornithodoros lahorensis Neuman and Argas persicus Oken (Acari: Argasidae) field populations. Pak J Biol Sci 10:4315–4318

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. Valente JD, Silva PW, Arzua M, Barros-Battesti DM, Martins TF, Silva AM, Vieira TS, Labruna MB, Vieira RF (2020) Records of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on humans and distribution of spotted-fever cases and its tick vectors in Paraná State, southern Brazil. Ticks Tick-Borne Dis 11:101510. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.102020.101510

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Vatansever Z, Gargili A, Aysul N, Sengoz G, Estrada-Peña A (2008) Ticks biting humans in the urban area of Istanbul. Parasitol Res 102:551–553

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  97. Weber M, Small C (2012) Amblyomma cajennense, Animal Diversity Web. Accessed June 16, 2019 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Amblyomma_cajennense/

  98. Wilhelmsson P, Lindblom P, Fryland L, Nyman D, Jaenson TG, Forsberg P, Lindgren P-E (2013) Ixodes ricinus ticks removed from humans in Northern Europe: seasonal pattern of infestation, attachment sites and duration of feeding. Parasit Vectors 6:362

    Google Scholar 

  99. Wormser GP, McKenna D, Piedmonte N, Vinci V, Egizi AM, Backenson B, Falco RC (2019) First recognized human bite in the United States by the Asian Longhorned tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis. Clin Infect Dis. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz449

  100. Zahirnia A, Boroomand M, Nasirian H, Salehzadeh A, Soleimani-Asl S (2019a) Comparing cytotoxicity of propoxur and Nepeta crispa (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) essential oil against invertebrate (Sf9) and vertebrate (L929) cell lines. Vet World 12:1698–1706

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  101. Zahirnia A, Boroomand M, Nasirian H, Soleimani-Asl S, Salehzadeh A, Dastan D (2019b) The cytotoxicity of malathion and essential oil of Nepeta crispa (lamiales: lamiaceae) against vertebrate and invertebrate cell lines. Pan African Med J 33:285. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.12019.11633.11285.18776

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Hamid Kassiri and Hassan Nasirian equally contributed to provide the work with full satisfaction and consent to publish in Environmental Science and Pollution Research.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hassan Nasirian.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval and funding

This work is a systematic and meta-analysis review that not needed ethical approval and did not receive any technical or financial support from any institution and were done by the authors at their own personal expense.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible editor: Lotfi Aleya

Supplementary Information

ESM 1

(DOCX 259 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kassiri, H., Nasirian, H. New insights about human tick infestation features: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 17000–17028 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13102-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Amblyomma
  • Haemaphysalis
  • Ixodes
  • Rhipicephalus
  • Human tick infestation rates
  • Human tick infestation records