The impact of export composition on environment and energy demand: evidence from newly industrialized countries

Abstract

Since the exports’ nature and the productive capabilities of economies and regions play an essential role in driving the energy demand and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, the modern literature focuses on the importance of export composition in determining the environmental quality. For this purpose, this study aims to test the composition impact of the trade by using export product diversification, extensive margin, and intensive margin on energy use and environment in a case study for the ten newly industrialized countries (NICs) from 1970 to 2014. Additionally, this study employs some other indicators such as income, urbanization, and economic complexity during our investigations. The obtained results from different panel estimations demonstrate that not only the composition of export products but also the income, urbanization, and economic complexity promote energy use and CO2 emissions. The panel causality results revealed a bidirectional linkage between overall diversification and CO2 emissions, and the intensive margin and CO2 emissions. In contrast, a unidirectional causality ran from CO2 emissions to the extensive margin. Energy consumption presented a bidirectional causality with the overall diversification, intensive margin, economic complexity, and urbanization. Finally, a unidirectional causality is observed from energy consumption to the extensive margin. Based on findings, applicable policies are discussed.

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Data availability

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this article.

Notes

  1. 1.

    See Can and Gozgor (2018) for Theil concentration and sub-indices’ usage and details.

  2. 2.

    For detailed information about economic complexity concept, see Can and Doğan (2017); Can and Doğan (2020).

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MC: conceptualization, writing—original draft. MA: writing—review and editing. ZK: formal analysis, data handling, and methodology.

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Correspondence to Zeeshan Khan.

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Can, M., Ahmad, M. & Khan, Z. The impact of export composition on environment and energy demand: evidence from newly industrialized countries. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13084-5

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Keywords

  • Export product diversification
  • CO2 emissions
  • Energy consumption
  • Newly industrialized countries
  • Economic complexity

JEL classification

  • Q43
  • F14
  • O11