Effective pesticide remediation technology demands amendments in the advanced oxidation process for its continuous treatment and catalyst recovery. The evidence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), an herbicide in water bodies, poses a major environmental threat to both humans and aquatic organisms. In the present study, a recirculation type photocatalytic reactor was developed to treat 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid using chitosan-TiO2 beads prepared via impregnation method under UV light. At optimized conditions, chitosan-TiO2 beads showed a maximum photocatalytic degradation of 86% than commercial TiO2 (65%) and followed pseudo first-order reaction. The 2,4-D degradation follows pseudo first-order kinetics under UV irradiation with a rate constant of 0.12 h−1, and the intermediates were identified using LCMS analysis. The total operational cost of the chitosan-TiO2 catalyst was found to be profitable (Rs. 1323 for 2 L) than that of TiO2 (Rs. 1679) at optimized conditions. The beads were reusable up to 4 consecutive cycles without loss in efficiency. This study briefs photocatalytic removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in a recirculation-type reactor for its reliability, low cost, efficiency, reusability, and commercialization.
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The authors are grateful to the Nanotechnology Research Centre (NRC) and SRM Central Instrumentation Facility (SCIF) of the SRM Institute of Science & Technology for its facilities. The characterization was partially supported from a Startup Research Grant with File no DST/SERB/SRG/001396/ES.
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Balakrishnan, A., Gopalram, K. & Appunni, S. Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dicholorophenoxyacetic acid by TiO2 modified catalyst: kinetics and operating cost analysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12928-4
- TiO2/chitosan beads
- 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)
- Continuous degradation
- Energy efficiency
- Cost estimation