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Assessing the distribution of cadmium under different land-use types and its effect on human health in different gender and age groups

Abstract

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the toxic elements entering the food chain in various ways, including chemical fertilizers. This study aimed to assess different amounts and forms of available Cd in soils under wheat cultivation affected by long-term use of phosphorus chemical fertilizers and also to study the rate of Cd intake by people with age and gender differences. To investigate the Cd status in wheat-cultivated lands, 105 soil samples and also 24 wheat samples were collected from three land uses of rainfed, irrigated, and control one. Phosphorus levels were also measured in soil samples to investigate the relationship between the amount of chemical fertilizer consumption and the amount of Cd. The mean values of available Cd were 0.15, 0.18, and 0.08 (mg/kg) under three land-use types of rainfed, irrigated, and control one, respectively, and the mean values of total Cd were also 1.9, 2.22, and 1.30 in the rainfed land, irrigated land, and control one, respectively. The results showed that the amount of available and total Cd in the irrigated and rainfed lands was higher than the amount of Cd in the control sample. According to the results of Cd fractionation, the highest amounts of Cd were in the residual, carbonate, organic, soluble, and exchangeable fractions, respectively. The amounts of Cd in the three parts of root, stem, and grain were 1.08, 0.65, 0.91 (mg/kg), respectively. Finally, the results showed that the rate of Cd entry into the children’s body was higher than that of adults and the elderly.

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Acknowledgments

Thanks to Ms. Mahboubeh Fallah, PhD student in Soil Physics and Conservation at Tarbiat Modares University, Iran, for correcting the grammar of the article.

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Ghasem Rahimi, Meisam Rahimi, Eisa Ebrahimi, and Salahedin Moradi conceived of the presented idea.

Ghasem Rahimi and Eisa Ebrahimi developed the theoretical framework.

Meisam Rahimi and Eisa Ebrahimi developed the theory and performed the computations.

Ghasem Rahimi and Salahedin Moradi verified the analytical methods.

Meisam Rahimi and Eisa Ebrahimi carried out the experiments.

All authors discussed the results and contributed to the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Eisa Ebrahimi.

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Rahimi, M., Rahimi, G., Ebrahimi, E. et al. Assessing the distribution of cadmium under different land-use types and its effect on human health in different gender and age groups. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 49258–49267 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12881-2

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Keywords

  • Pollution
  • Fractionation
  • Transfer factor
  • Toxicity
  • Target hazard quotient