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Ground improvement and its role in carbon dioxide reduction: a review

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A Correction to this article was published on 02 February 2021

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Abstract

Environmental global issues affecting global warming, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), have attracted the attention of researchers around the world. This paper reviews and discusses the ground improvement and its contribution to reducing CO2 in the atmosphere. The approach is divided into three parts: the Streamlined Energy and Emissions Assessment Model (SEEAM), the replacement of soil stabilisation materials that lead to the emission of a large amount of CO2 with alternatives and mineral carbonation. A brief discussion about the first two is reviewed in this paper and a detailed discussion about mineral carbonation and its role in enhancing soil strength while absorbing a large amount of CO2. It is emphasised that natural mineral carbonation requires a very long time for a material to reach its full capacity to form CO2; as a result, different acceleration processes can be done from increasing pressure, temperature, the concentration of CO2 and the addition of various additives. In conclusion, it was found that magnesium is more attractive than calcium, and calcium is complicated in terms of strength behaviour. Magnesium has a larger capacity for CO2 sequestration and it has a greater potential to increase soil strength than calcium.

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Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

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Funding

This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) awarded by the Ministry of Education of Malaysia (Engineering and Microstructural Characteristics of Lateritic Soil Treated with Ordinary Portland Cement Undercyclic Saturated (Wetting) and Unsaturated (Drying) Conditions - FRGS/1/2019/TK01/UTM/02/13).

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All the authors have contributed on preparing this review paper starting from the conception or design of the work (Ahmed Mohammed Awad Mohammed & Nor Zurairahetty Mohd Yunus), data acquisition (Ahmed Mohammed Awad Mohammed) and analysis (Muhammad Azril Hezmi) and interpretation of data (Dayang Zulaika Abang Hasbollah) to drafting and reviewing manuscript (Ahmad Safuan A Rashid).

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Correspondence to Ahmad Safuan A Rashid.

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Mohammed, M.A., Mohd Yunus, N.Z., Hezmi, M.A. et al. Ground improvement and its role in carbon dioxide reduction: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 8968–8988 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12392-0

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