Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases by inducing an oxidative and inflammatory phenotype. Besides, the reduction of 17β-estradiol (E2) levels during menopause is a natural risk for cardiovascular outcomes. During the E2 downfall, there is a high requirement of the 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70), which present essential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-senescence roles. We investigated if the ovariectomy, an animal model for menopause, could induce additional effects in cardiac health by impairing oxidative and heat shock response parameters of female rats chronically exposed to residual oil fly ash (ROFA; an inorganic fraction of PM2.5). Thus, ROFA was obtained from São Paulo (Brazil) and solubilized it in saline. Further, female Wistar rats were exposed to 50 μL of saline (control group) or ROFA solution (250 μg) (polluted) by intranasal instillation, 5 days/week, 12 weeks. At the 12th week, animals were subdivided into four groups (n = 6 p/group): control, OVX, polluted, and polluted + OVX. Control and polluted were submitted to false surgery, while OVX and polluted + OVX were ovariectomized. ROFA or saline exposure continued for 12 weeks. Ovariectomy reduced the cardiac catalase activity and iHSP70 expression in female rats exposed to ROFA. Neither plasma eHSP72 levels nor H-index (eHSP72 to cardiac iHSP70 ratio) was affected. In conclusion, ovariectomy reduces the cardiac cytoprotection and antioxidant defense, and enhances the susceptibility to premature cellular senescence in rats exposed to ROFA.
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The authors would like to thank their colleagues from the Research Group in Physiology (UNIJUI).
This study was supported by the Regional University of Northwestern Rio Grande do Sul State (UNIJUÍ). LCCB and GEH were recipients of scholarships from CAPES.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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This study followed all ethical rules established by Arouca’s Act (Federal Law 11,794/2008) and the Guide for Care and Use of Experimental Animals, published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH publication no. 85–23, revised in 1996). This protocol was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of UNIJUÍ (CEUA-UNIJUÍ, protocol 076/15).
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Costa-Beber, L.C., Goettems-Fiorin, P.B., dos Santos, J.B. et al. Ovariectomy reduces the cardiac cytoprotection in rats exposed to particulate air pollutant. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 23395–23404 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12350-w
- Air pollution
- Heat shock protein
- Oxidative stress
- Cellular senescence
- Cardiac lipids