This research examined the impact of foreign direct investment, natural resources, renewable energy consumption, and economic growth on environmental degradation in BRICS, developing, developed, and global countries for the time period from 1991 to 2018 by using dynamic fixed effect model, GMM, and system GMM estimators. The examined results indicate that FDI causes environmental degradation in BRICS and developing countries while in developed countries, FDI helps environmental degradation reduction. The empirical results indicate that fuel resources and renewable energy consumption help to reduce the environment degradation in BRICS, developing, developed, and global countries while ore and metal resources cause environment degradation improvement in developed countries. Total natural resources (coal, oil, natural gas, and mineral rents) and economic growth are the main factors that boost the environmental degradation in BRICS, developing, developed, and global countries. Based on the examined results, policies are suggested for BRICS, developing, developed, and global countries. It is suggested that policy makers in these countries not only reply to protect environmental degradation but also support the growth of fuel resources, ore, and metal resource and total natural resources.
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Muhammad, B., Khan, M.K., Khan, M.I. et al. Impact of foreign direct investment, natural resources, renewable energy consumption, and economic growth on environmental degradation: evidence from BRICS, developing, developed and global countries. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 21789–21798 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12084-1
- Foreign direct investment
- CO2 emission
- Natural resources
- Renewable energy consumption
- Economic growth