A variety of materials are used in dental prosthesis laboratories (DPL), especially metal alloys and methyl methacrylate (MMA)–based monomers and polymers. These metal alloys contain elements such as cobalt, chromium, nickel, molybdenum, lead, and mercury that can have toxic effects on human health when excessive amounts of exposure occur. This study aims to investigate the cytotoxic effects of occupational exposure due to dental prosthesis manufacturing operations on erythrocyte cells. Thirty DPL workers were compared with the 30 control group and the questionnaire forms were applied including the symptoms due to their occupational exposure. Blood was taken from the experimental group and the control group into tubes with EDTA, and the erythrocyte morphologies were examined by the peripheral smear technique. Morphological anomalies determined from the experimental group and the control group are statistically significant (p < .005, p < .01). On the other hand, it was revealed that the sub-variables, namely age range, alcohol, and smoking, did not significantly affect the anomalies. With these results, it was concluded that DPL employees should strictly comply with occupational health precautions.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Abakay A, Atılgan S, Abakay O, Atalay Y, Güven S, Yaman F (2013) Frequency of respiratory function disorders among dental laboratory technicians working under conditions of high dust concentration. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 17:809–814
Anyanwu BO, Ezejiofor AN, Igweze ZN, Orisakwe OE (2018) Heavy metal mixture exposure and effects in developing nations: an update. Toxics 6(4):65
Arsal Yıldırım S (2018) Determination of particulate matter concentrations in the ambient air of dental prosthetics laboratory and their assesment in terms of employees health. Unpublished master’s thesis. Kocaeli University, İzmit
Arsal Yıldırım S, Pekey B (2018) Assessment of particulate matter-related pollution in the dental prosthesis laboratory air in terms of worker’s health. Sakarya Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi 22(2):838–852
Bernstein JA, Alexis N, Bacchus H, Bernstein IL, Fritz P, Horner E, Reijula K (2008) The health effects of nonindustrial indoor air pollution. J Allergy Clin Immunol 121(3):585–591
Bouyer G, Reininger L, Ramdani G, Phillips LD, Sharma V, Egee S, ..., Lasonder E (2016) Plasmodium falciparum infection induces dynamic changes in the erythrocyte phospho-proteome. Blood Cells Molec Dis 58:35-44
Bremner I (2009) Heavy Metal Toxicities. Q Rev Biophys 7:75
Brook RD, Rajagopalan S, Pope III CA, Brook JR, Bhatnagar A, Diez-Roux AV, Peters A (2010) Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 121(21):2331–2378
Çasgem (2013) Çalışma ve Sosyal Güvenlik Araştırma. Occupational Diseases. www.casgem.gov.tr/dosyalar/kitap/81/dosya-81-8942.docx2
Ciftci F, Gürün Kaya A, Çiledağ A, Kaya A (2015) A review of dental technician’s pneumoconiosis: three case reports. Respir Case Rep 4(1):5–9
ÇSGB (2011) Occupational diseases guide, 1st edn. Matsa Publishing House, Ankara
Eisele K, Lang PA, Kempe DS, Klarl BA, Niemoller O, Wieder T, Huber SM, Duranton C, Lang F (2006) Stimulation of erythrocyte phosphatidylserine exposure by mercury ions. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 210:116–122
El-Demerdash FM, Yousef MI, Kedwany FS, Baghdadi HH (2004) Cadmium-induced changes in lipid peroxidation, blood hematology, biochemical parameters and semen quality of male rats: protective role of vitamin E and β-carotene. Food Chem Toxicol 42(10):1563–1571
García-Fernández AJ, Bayoumi AE, Pérez-Pertejo Y, Motas M, Reguera RM, Ordóñez C, Balaña-Fouce R, Ordóñez D (2002) Alterations of the glutathione– redox balance induced by metals in CHO-K1 cells. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 132(3):365–373
Hariyani N, Berniyatni T, Setyowati D (2015) Effects of occupational enviromental controls on the level of Co, Ni, Cr among dental technicians. IJESD 6(9):644–646
Hedayati A, Ghaffari Z (2013) Effect of mercuric chloride on some hematological, biochemical parameters in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Int J Vet Med: Res and Rep 20:1–11
Hernández-García A, Romero D, Gómez-Ramírez P, María-Mojica P, Martínez-López E, García-Fernández AJ (2014) In vitro evaluation of cell death induced by cadmium, lead and their binary mixtures on erythrocytes of Common buzzard (Buteo buteo). Toxicol in Vitro 28(2):300–306
Hillman R, Ault K, Leporrier M (2010) Red blood cell disorders. In: Hillman R (ed) Hematology in clinical practice, 5th edn. McGraw-Hill Education, pp 10–26. https://doi.org/978001766531
Hiraga T, Ohyama K, Hashigaya A, Ishikawa T, Muramoto W, Kitagawa H, Teraoka H (2008) Lead exposure induces pycnosis and enucleation of peripheral erythrocytes in the domestic fowl. Vet J 178(1):109–114
Hu SW, Lin YY, Wu TC, Hong CC, Chan CC, Lung SCC (2006) Workplace air quality and lung function among dental laboratory technicians. Am J Ind Med 49(2):85–92
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (2019). https://www.iarc.fr/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/WCR_Section-Opening-Pages.pdf. Accessed 20 June 2020
Jensen GK, Gümüşel D, Stuffer A (2015) Unpaid health bill, health, and environment alliance. İris Communications, Ankara
Karmakar R, Bhattacharya R, Chatterjee M (2000) Biochemical, haematological and histopathological study in relation to time-related cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Biometals 13(3):231–239
Kempe DS, Lang PA, Eisele K, Klarl BA, Wieder T, Huber SM, Duranton C, Lang F (2005) Stimulation of erythrocyte phosphatidylserine exposure by lead ions. Am J Phys Cell Phys 288:396–402
Kettelarij J, Nilsson S, Midander K, Lidén C, Julander A (2016) Snapshot of cobalt, chromium, and nickel exposure in dental technicians. Contact Derm 75(6):370–376
Kim TS, Kim HA, Heo Y, Park Y, Park CY, Roh YM (2002) Level of silica in the respirable dust inhaled by dental technicians with a demonstration of respirable symptoms. Ind Health 40(3):260–265
Lawrence DA (1981) Heavy metal modulation of lymphocyte activities: I. In vitro effects of heavy metals on primary humoral immune responses. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 57(3):439–451
Mackert JR (2016) Side-effects of dental ceramics. Adv Dent Res 6(1):90–93
Mahajan VE, Yadav RR, Dakshinkar NP, Dhoot VM, Bhojane GR, Naik MK, Shrivastava P, Naoghare PK, Krishnamurthi K (2012) Influence of mercury from fly ash on cattle reared nearby thermal power plant. Environ Monit Assess 184(12):7365–7372
Mitra P, Sharma S, Purohit P, Sharma P (2017) Clinical and molecular aspects of lead toxicity: an update. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 54(7-8):506–528
Niemoeller OM, Kiedaisch V, Dreischer P, Wieder T, Lang F (2006) Stimulation of eryptosis by aluminium ions. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 217:168–175
Özdemir D, Özdemir AK, Vural A, Arıcı MK, Yıldız ZÖ (2006) Evaluation of eye tear function and anterior segment changes in dental laboratory technicians. Cumhur Medical J 28(3):95–99
Pope CA, Bhatnagar A, McCracken JP, Abplanalp W, Conklin DJ, O’Toole T (2016) Exposure to fine particulate air pollution is associated with endothelial injury and systemic inflammation. Circ Res 119(11):1204–1214
Romero D, Hernández-García A, Tagliati CA, Martínez-López E, García-Fernández AJ (2009) Cadmium- and lead-induced apoptosis in mallard erythrocytes (Anas platyrhynchos). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72(1):37–44
Sancho P, Fernández C, Yuste VJ, Amrán D, Ramos AM, De Blas E, Aller P (2006) Regulation of apoptosis/necrosis execution in cadmium-treated human promonocytic cells under different forms of oxidative stress. Apoptosis 11(5):673–686
Sopjani M, Föller M, Dreischer P, Lang F (2008) Stimulation of eryptosis by cadmium ions. Cell Physiol Biochem 22(1–4):245–252
Soysal A, Demiral Y (2007) Closed ambient air pollution. Prev Med Bull 6(3):221–226
Steffensen IL, Mesna OJ, Andruchow E, Namork E, Hylland K, Andersen RA (1994) Cytotoxicity and accumulation of Hg, Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in human peripheral T and B lymphocytes and monocytes in vitro. Gen Pharmacol 25(8):1621–1633
Steward BW, Wild CP (2014) World cancer report. WHO, Geneva, pp 134–143
Tanrıverdi H, Altınsoy B, Uygur F, Erboy F, Yazgan Ö, Atalay F (2015) Dental pneumoconiosis case report. Eur J Health Sci 1(2):76–78
Tkeshelashvili LK, Tsakadze KJ, Khulusauri OV (1989) Effect of some nickel compounds on red blood cell characteristics. Biol Trace Elem Res 21(1):337–342
Vaziri ND (2008) Mechanisms of lead-induced hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 295(2):H454–H465
Wu X, Cobbina SJ, Mao G, Xu H, Zhang Z, Yang L (2016) A review of toxicity and mechanisms of individual and mixtures of heavy metals in the environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(9):8244–8259
Yiğit AA, Kabakçı R (2018) Çevre kirleticilerden ağır metallerin hayvanlarda hematopoetik sistem üzerine etkileri. Turkiye Klinikleri J Vet Sci Pharmacol Toxicol-Special Topics 4(1):9–15
Yıldız (2009) Hematolojİk Malİgnİtelİ Hastaların Erİtrosİt Morfolojİlerİnİn İncelenmesİ, Histoloji ve Embriyoloji Anabilim Dalı Doktora Tezi ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ ENSTİTÜSÜ
Ying Z, Yue P, Xu X, Zhong M, Sun Q, Mikolaj M, Rajagopalan S (2009) Air pollution and cardiac remodeling: a role for RhoA/Rho-kinase. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 296(5):H1540–H1550
We would like to thank all DPL technicians and control group subjects who volunteered to participate. We are grateful to Dr. Ozlem AKSOY (Kocaeli University) for providing the lab facilities and to Serap ARSAL YILDIRIM and Dr. Dogan YUKSEL for their valuable contributions.
This research was carried out in compliance with the ethical standards.
The Ethics Committee of Kocaeli University approved this study with the ID number KU GOKAEK 2018/284.
Consent to participate
All participants volunteered to participate in the study and signed consent forms.
Consent to publish
The author agreed to publish the manuscript in this journal and gave consent to publish.
The author declares no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Responsible Editor: Lotfi Aleya
About this article
Cite this article
Yuksel, B. Investigation of morphological abnormalities in red blood cells among dental laboratory technicians. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 20650–20658 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11935-1
- Dental laboratory technicians