Hexavalent chromium removal from water: adsorption properties of in natura and magnetic nanomodified sugarcane bagasse

Abstract

Biosorption has become a viable and ecological process in which biological materials are employed as adsorbents for the removal of potentially toxic metals, such as hexavalent chromium, from aqueous matrices. This work proposed the use of in natura (SB) and nanomodified sugarcane bagasse (SB-NP) with ferromagnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) to adsorb Cr(VI) from water. These materials were analyzed by X-ray Spectroscopy (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to investigate their morphology and interaction with Cr(VI). It was observed the efficient impregnation of magnetite on the SB surface and the presence of functional groups such as O–H, C–H, C=O, C–O–C, C–O, and Fe–O (characteristic of magnetite). The best conditions for Cr(VI) removal in aqueous medium were determined by assessing the pH at the point of zero charge (pHPZC = 6.1 and 5.8 for SB and SB-NP, respectively), adsorption pH and kinetics, and adsorption capacity. Batch procedures were performed using increasing concentrations of Cr(VI), 10–100 mg/L at pH 1.0, and 30 min of contact time. The adsorbent dose was 10 mg/L, and the experimental adsorption capacities (SCexp) for SB, NP, and SB-NP were 1.49 ± 0.06 mg/g, 2.48 ± 0.57 mg/g, and 1.60 ± 0.08 mg/g, respectively. All Cr contents were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The pseudo-2nd-order kinetic equation provided the best adjustments with r2 0.9966 and 0.9931 for SB and SB-NP, respectively. Six isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Temkin, Dubinin–Radushkevich, and Hill) were applied to the experimental data, and Freundlich, Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R), and Temkin were the models that best described the experimental sorption process. The binding energy values (E) provided by the D–R model were 0.11 ± 0.25, 0.09 ± 0.20, and 0.08 ± 0.25 kJ/mol, for NP, SB-NP, and SB, respectively, and denote a physical interaction for the studied adsorbate–adsorbent system. The nanomodification of the biomass slightly improved the efficiency for the sorption of Cr(VI) and facilitated the removal of Cr(VI)-containing biosorbents from water medium.

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Data availability

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article. Extra data are available from the authors (elma.carrilho@mail.com) upon reasonable request.

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Funding

This work was supported by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) under Grants 2016/06271-4 and 120582/2019-8, respectively.

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EC and GL postulated and supervised the study. TEA, BCS, JCJ, and EC planned the experiment. TEA and BCS obtained the data, and EC, GL, TEA, PAM, and JCJ carried out the data analysis and interpretation. GL performed the adjustment of all experimental data to the isothermal models applied. PAM used kinetic models equations to describe the adsorption profile. TEA, BCS, and JCJ prepared the first draft, and EC and GL thoroughly revised the manuscript. EC, GL, and TEA read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Elma Neide Vasconcelos Martins Carrilho.

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Abilio, T.E., Soares, B.C., José, J.C. et al. Hexavalent chromium removal from water: adsorption properties of in natura and magnetic nanomodified sugarcane bagasse. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11726-8

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Keywords

  • Biomass
  • Biosorption
  • Water decontamination
  • Toxic metal ion
  • Magnetic nanocomposite