The application of three simple and cost-effective technologies for ex situ remediation of the sediment of Begej River in Serbia is presented in this paper. In the first step, conventional electrokinetic treatment (EK) was carried out to reduce the amount of contaminated sediment and enhance the accumulation of metals. Subsequently, stabilization/solidification (S/S) treatment was applied to the remaining portion of polluted sediment to immobilize the accumulated metals. At the same time, the influence of accelerated carbonation on the effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated. The immobilizing agents used in this study included bio ash produced by combustion of wheat and soy straw mixture and bio ash derived from molasses incineration. After the treatments, the risk assessment was performed by using the sequential extraction procedure (SEP) and TCLP and DIN 3841-4 S4 leaching tests. The results obtained after the EK treatment revealed a reduction in the amount of polluted sediment to a half. Leaching tests and SEP performed on S/S mixtures after a 28-day maturation period indicated that accelerated carbonation decreased the mobility of critical metals, especially in wheat and soy straw mixtures. Moreover, based on the leaching tests, all prepared mixtures were categorized as non-hazardous and safe for disposal according to the relevant Serbian regulations. The newly developed method that combines EK and S/S treatments with the addition of accelerated carbonation produced reduced volumes of stabilized sediment which is safe for disposal.
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This research was funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Grant Number 451-03-68/2020-14/200125).
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Popov, N., Rončević, S., Duduković, N. et al. Ex situ remediation of sediment from Serbia using a combination of electrokinetic and stabilization/solidification with accelerated carbonation treatments. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11621-2
- Accelerated carbonation
- Bio ash
- Leaching tests