Ex situ remediation of sediment from Serbia using a combination of electrokinetic and stabilization/solidification with accelerated carbonation treatments

Abstract

The application of three simple and cost-effective technologies for ex situ remediation of the sediment of Begej River in Serbia is presented in this paper. In the first step, conventional electrokinetic treatment (EK) was carried out to reduce the amount of contaminated sediment and enhance the accumulation of metals. Subsequently, stabilization/solidification (S/S) treatment was applied to the remaining portion of polluted sediment to immobilize the accumulated metals. At the same time, the influence of accelerated carbonation on the effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated. The immobilizing agents used in this study included bio ash produced by combustion of wheat and soy straw mixture and bio ash derived from molasses incineration. After the treatments, the risk assessment was performed by using the sequential extraction procedure (SEP) and TCLP and DIN 3841-4 S4 leaching tests. The results obtained after the EK treatment revealed a reduction in the amount of polluted sediment to a half. Leaching tests and SEP performed on S/S mixtures after a 28-day maturation period indicated that accelerated carbonation decreased the mobility of critical metals, especially in wheat and soy straw mixtures. Moreover, based on the leaching tests, all prepared mixtures were categorized as non-hazardous and safe for disposal according to the relevant Serbian regulations. The newly developed method that combines EK and S/S treatments with the addition of accelerated carbonation produced reduced volumes of stabilized sediment which is safe for disposal.

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Data availability

Not applicable. The data shown and considered in the manuscript was produced by authors, and no other data was considered.

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Funding

This research was funded by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Grant Number 451-03-68/2020-14/200125).

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NP conceptualized the research project, developed methodology, collected the samples, conducted the experiments, analyzed samples, interpreted the data, and wrote the manuscript; SR supervised and managed the research project; NV assisted electrokinetic treatment experiments, AAS analysis and quality control; DK conceptualized and supervised electrokinetic treatment experiments; ŽM and MŽB assisted supervision and management of the research project; SĐ carried out XRD analysis and edited figures and text. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Nataša Duduković.

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Popov, N., Rončević, S., Duduković, N. et al. Ex situ remediation of sediment from Serbia using a combination of electrokinetic and stabilization/solidification with accelerated carbonation treatments. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11621-2

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Keywords

  • Electrokinetics
  • Stabilization/solidification
  • Accelerated carbonation
  • Bio ash
  • Immobilization
  • Leaching tests