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In situ phytoremediation of heavy metal–contaminated soil and groundwater: a green inventive approach

Abstract

The heavy metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a serious threat to environment worldwide. The survival of human being primarily relies upon soil and groundwater sources. Therefore, the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil and groundwater is a matter of utmost concern. Heavy metals are non-degradable and persist in the environment and subsequently contaminate the food chain. Heavy metal pollution puts a serious impact on human health and it adversely affects our physical body. Although, numerous in situ conventional technologies have been utilized for the treatment purpose, but most of the techniques have some limitations such as high cost, deterioration of soil properties, disturbances to soil native flora and fauna and intensive labour. Despite that, in situ phytoremediation is a cost-effective, eco-friendly, solar-driven and novel approach with significant public acceptance. The past research reflects rare discussion addressing both (heavy metal in situ phytoremediation of soil and groundwater) in one platform. The present review article covers both the concepts of in situ phytoremediation of soil and groundwater with major emphasis on health risks of heavy metals, enhanced integrated approaches of in situ phytoremediation, mechanisms of in situ phytoremediation along with effective hyperaccumulator plants for heavy metals remediation, challenges and future prospects.

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Data availability

Not applicable

Abbreviations

ABC:

adenosine triphosphate binding cassette

AtHMA4:

Arabidopsis thaliana heavy metal ATPase 4

ATP:

adenosine triposphate

BCF:

bio-concentration factor

BIS:

Bureau of Indian Standards

EDI:

estimated daily intake

EPA:

Environmental Protection Agency

FAO:

Food and Agriculture Organization

HI:

hazard index

HPI:

high pollution index

LOAEL:

lowest observed adverse effect level

MI:

metal index

MI:

maximum limit

Nano-Ag:

nanosilver

Nano-Fe3O4 :

nanoferrosoferric oxide

Nano-SnO2 :

nanostannic oxide

Nano-TiO2 :

titanium dioxide nanoparticles

Nano-Zn:

nanozinc

NCB:

nanocarbon black

NcZNT1:

Noccaea caerulescens zinc transporter 1

NHAP:

nanohydroxyapatite

NOAEL:

no observed adverse effect level

nZVI:

nanozero valent ions

PGPR:

plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

POPs:

persistent organic pollutants

PvTIP:

Pteris vittata tonoplast intrinsic protein

RfD:

reference dose

TF:

translocation factor

THQ:

target hazard quotient

USEPA:

United States Environmental Protection Agency

WHO:

World Health Organization

WQI:

water quality index

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Acknowledgements

The authors are indebted to the Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM) Dhanbad, for all the valuable support and needful facilities. The authors are also thankful to Mr. Adheesh Vivek for their assistance while framing the manuscript.

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The idea for this review article was given by author A (Deep Shikha). Moreover, author A (Deep Shikha) performed the comprehensive literature review and drafted the manuscript, and the drafted manuscript was critically revised by author B (Dr. Prasoon Kumar Singh).

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Correspondence to Deep Shikha.

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Shikha, D., Singh, P.K. In situ phytoremediation of heavy metal–contaminated soil and groundwater: a green inventive approach. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 4104–4124 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11600-7

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Keywords

  • Soil
  • Groundwater
  • Heavy metals
  • In situ phytoremediation
  • Health risks