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Valuing and significance of eco-tourism parks across eastern arid regions of Pakistan

Abstract

The green spaces preserve natural heritage, spectacular landscapes, and wildlife habitats. By incorporating national parks, it leads to economic growth, environmental sustainability, social involvement, and provides a protected area for endangered wildlife. Nature-dependent tourism indicates a critical place within the national economy. Pakistan is tackling the tourism industry and implementing nature-related approaches using national parks. The main objective of the proposed study is to appraise the economic value of the eastern arid regions of Pakistan and determine their environmental importance. For the assessment of recreational value, the travel cost method (TCM) and the zero truncated negative binomial regression models were chosen. Recreation demand was negatively linked to salary and had a significant positive association with the place of residence, age, and length of stay. The total estimated annual consumer surplus of the parks was Rs. 3317/person, while outsider consumer surplus was Rs. 3032/person/visit, and consumer surplus native annual value was Rs. 3289/person/visit. The results show that visitors have fewer tendencies towards the recreational site, as they are restricted to paying the entrance fee. This study contributes to environmental content reservations, such as a clean atmosphere, soil protection, and a stable ecosystem. It also improves economic valuation and sends a thought-provoking signal to native authorities to effectively manage the supervision of national parks.

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Data availability

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Contributions

Sehresh Hena: conceptualization, formal analysis, investigation, software, methodology, writing - original draft. Sufyan Ullah Khan: writing - original draft, data curation, writing - review and editing. Abdul Rehman: investigation, software, methodology. Sumia Sahar: data curation, formal analysis. Inam Ullah Khalil: investigation, methodology, review and editing. Jingdong Luan: writing - review and editing, data curation, formal analysis, investigation, software, methodology, supervision.

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Correspondence to Jingdong Luan.

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Hena, S., Khan, S.U., Rehman, A. et al. Valuing and significance of eco-tourism parks across eastern arid regions of Pakistan. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 5900–5913 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10988-6

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Keywords

  • Valuation
  • Eco-tourism parks
  • Travel cost method
  • Consumer surplus
  • Economic analysis
  • Eastern arid regions
  • Pakistan