Chemometric tools are powerful strategies to efficiently optimize many processes. These tools were employed to optimize a fast-solid phase microextraction procedure, which was used for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oil-based produced water using a Headspace–Solid Phase Microextraction technique (HS-SPME/GC-MS). This optimization was achieved with a 24 factorial design approach, where the final conditions for this extraction procedure were 10 μg L−1, 1 h, 92 °C (at headspace), and 0.62 mol L−1 for PAHs concentration, fiber exposition to headspace, temperature, and NaCl concentration, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) in this protocol ranged from 0.2 to 41.4 ng L−1, while recovery values from 67.65 to 113.10%. Besides that, relative standard deviation (RSD) were lower than 8.39% considering high molecular weight compounds. Moreover, the proposed methodology in this work does not require any previous treatment of the sample and allows to quantify a higher number of PAHs. Notably, naphthalene was the major PAHs compound quantified in all samples of the produced water at 99.99 μg L−1. Altogether, these results supported this methodology as a suitable analytical strategy for fast determination of PAHs in produced water from oil-based industry.
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Longhinotti, E (PQ/CNPq #306896/2018-4) and Nascimento, R.F. (PQ/CNPq #305074/2018-0) are thankful to PETROBRÁS, CNPq, CAPES and FUNCAP for financial support and fellowships provided.
This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001. PETROBRÁS, CNPq, CAPES, and FUNCAP provided also financial support and fellowships for this study.
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Vasconcelos, P.H.M., Camelo, A.L.M., de Lima, A.C.A. et al. Chemometric tools applied to optimize a fast solid-phase microextraction method for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in produced water. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 8012–8021 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10881-2
- Produced water
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
- Solid-phase microextraction
- Chemometric tools
- Gas chromatography
- Mass spectrometry