To examine the association between exposure to common electrical appliances in early pregnancy and congenital heart disease (CHD). A case-control study of 2339 participants was conducted in six hospitals in Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, Northwest China from 2014 to 2016. All infants with CHD were diagnosed according to ICD-10 classification. Selected controls consisted of newborns from the same hospital, without any birth defects, and 1:3 matched by birthdate. We conducted personal interviews with the mothers to gather information on any exposure to electrical appliances during pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of exposure to common electrical appliances on CHD. We observed that the mothers exposed to computers (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.71), induction cookers (OR: 2.79, 95% CI: 2.19, 3.55), and microwave ovens (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.31) during early pregnancy were more likely to give birth to infants with CHD. Mothers who wore radiation protection suits (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.87) during early pregnancy decreased the risk of CHD in their neonate. There was an interaction for induction cooker exposure with wore radiation protection suits on CHD (RERI: − 1.44, 95% CI: − 2.48, − 0.39; S: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.84; AP: − 0.79, 95% CI: − 1.53, − 0.05). Our study confirmed that exposure to some electrical appliances was associated with a higher risk of CHD, and wearing a radiation protection suit was associated with a lower risk of CHD. Women should therefore reduce the usage of electrical appliances before and during pregnancy.
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We sincerely thank the collaborating hospitals for their efforts in diagnosing congenital heart diseases. Particularly, we are grateful to the population participants and to all of the investigators for their striving to collect data.
This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81230016) and Birth Defect Control and Prevention Project of Shaanxi Commission of Health and Family Planning (No. sxwsjswzfcght2016-013).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The Human Research Ethics Committee of the Xi’an Jiaotong University Health Science Center approved the study (No. 20120008). All subjects involved in the study had signed informed written consent before acceptance into the investigation.
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Zhao, D., Guo, L., Zhang, R. et al. Risk of congenital heart disease due to exposure to common electrical appliances during early pregnancy: a case-control study. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 4739–4748 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10852-7
- Congenital heart disease
- Common electrical appliances
- Case-control study