Skip to main content

Risk assessment of iodine intake from the consumption of red seaweeds (Palmaria palmata and Chondrus crispus)

Abstract

Seaweeds are a basic food in the Asian diet. The search for functional and healthy foods has increased the seaweed consumption in Europe and the USA. Seaweeds are a source of essential elements such as iodine. However, high intake levels of iodine can cause damages to human health. Red seaweeds like dulse (Palmaria palmata) and Irish moss (Chondrus crispus) are common in shops and large stores. The iodine level in 30 samples of red seaweeds (dulse and Irish moss) has been determined by redox volumetry with sodium thiosulfate to determine the iodine content of both species and to assess the iodine dietary exposure from dulse and Irish moss consumption. Irish moss (3.86 ± 1.49 mg/kg dry weight) has the highest average iodine content. Four grams per day of dehydrated Irish moss seaweeds contributes greatly to the iodine recommended daily intake (DRI) for children (25.7%). The consumption of analyzed seaweeds (4 g/day) does not pose a health risk. However, the consumption of 286 g/day of Irish moss would lead to exceeding the UL for the adult population set at 1100 μg/day. It is necessary that the consumer respects the consumption guidelines of the seaweed packers.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • AECOSAN (Agencia Española de Consumo, Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición) (2012) Report of the Scientific Committee of the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition (AESAN) for the assessment of the risk associated with the consumption of macroscopic algae with a high iodine content. Rev Com Cient 1-16

  • Andersen S, Noahsen P, Rex KF, Florian-Sørensen HC, Mulvad G (2019) Iodine in edible seaweed, its absorption, dietary use, and relation to iodine nutrition in Arctic people. J Med Food 22:421–426

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • AOAC (Association of Official Agricultural Chemists) (2006) Official methods of analysis minerals analysis iodine, volumetric - item 50. Association of Analytical Communities, Gaithersburg, MD, 17th edition. Reference data: Method 935.14; NFNAP; MIN; ID

  • ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) (2004) Toxicological profile for iodine U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service, Atlanta

  • Blanco A (2006) Química Biológica. Octava edición. Editorial El Ateneo, Spain

    Google Scholar 

  • Bürgi H (2010) Iodine excess. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 24:107–115

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chakraborty S, Bhattacharya T, Singh G, Maity JP (2014) Benthic macroalgae as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environments: a biomonitoring approach for pollution assessment. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 100:61–68

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cherry P, O’Hara C, Magee PJ, McSorley EM, Allsopp P (2019) Risks and benefits of consuming edible seaweeds. Nutr Rev 77(5):307–329

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dawczynski C, Schäfer U, Leiterer M, Jahreis G (2007) Nutritional and toxicological importance of macro, trace, and ultra-trace elements in algae food products. J Agric Food Chem 55(25):10470–10475

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) (2014) Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for iodine. EFSA J 12(5):3660

    Google Scholar 

  • González A, Paz S, Rubio C, Gutiérrez AJ, Hardisson A (2020) Human exposure to iodine from the consumption of edible seaweeds. Biol Trace Elem Res 197(2):361–366

  • IOM (Institute of Medicine) (2001) Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, National Academy Press, Washington (DC)

    Google Scholar 

  • Jiménez-Escrig A, Gómez-Ordóñez E, Rupérez P (2011) Brown and red seaweeds as potential sources of antioxidant nutraceuticals. J Appl Physiol 77-86

  • Lado Ali U, Al-Awwal N (2015) Determination of iodide in tropical seaweed (Halopteris filicina). Int J Sci Res 4(3):530–532

    Google Scholar 

  • Lauterbach A, Uber G (2011) Iodine and iodine compounds. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley&Sons, Inc, USA

  • Luo Y, Kawashima A, Ishido Y, Yoshihara A, Oda K, Hiroi N, Ito T, Ishii N, Suzuki K (2014) Iodine excess as an environmental risk factor for autoimmune thyroid disease. Int J Mol Sci 15(7):12895–12912

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martino E, Bartalena L, Bogazzi F, Braverman LE (2001) The effects of amiodarone en the thyroid. Endocr Rev 22:240–254

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McHugh D (2003) A guide to the seaweed industry. FAO Fisheries technical paper No. 441, FAO. Rome, Italy. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/006/y4765e/y4765e00.pdf. Accessed 2 Jan 2020

  • Pan G (2002) Confidence intervals for comparing two scale parameters based on Levene´s statistics. J Nonpar Stat 4:459–476

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Paz S, Rubio C, Frías I, Gutiérrez AJ, González-Weller D, Revert C, Hardisson A (2018) Metal concentrations in wild-harvested Phaeophyta seaweed from the Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands, Spain). J Food Prot 81(7):1165–1170

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Paz-Montelongo S (2018) Determinación de metales y elementos traza en algas: Evaluación nutricional y toxicológica. Doctoral Disertation, Universidad de La Laguna, Spain.

  • Pennington JA (1990) A review of iodine toxicity reports. J Am Diet Assoc 90:1571–1581

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Razali NM, Wah YB (2011) Power comparisons of Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Lilliefors and Anderson-Darling Tests. J Stat Model Anal 2:21–33

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosenfeld L (2000) Discovery and early uses of iodine. J Chem Educ 77:984–987

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rubio C, Napoleone G, Luis-González G, Gutiérrez AJ, González-Weller D, Hardisson A, Revert C (2017) Metals in edible seaweed. Chemosphere 173:572–579

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Senyk JI (1977) The determination of iodide in seaweed. A general chemistry research experience. J Chem Educ 54(8):511–513

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Teas J, Pino S, Critchley A, Braverman LE (2004) Variability of iodine content in common commercially available edible seaweeds. Thyroid 14(10):836–841

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Topliss DJ, Eastman CJ (2004) Diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Med J Aust 180(4):186–193

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yeh TS, Hung NH, Lin TC (2014) Analysis of iodine content in seaweed by GC-ECD and estimation of iodine intake. J Food Drug Anal 22(2):189–196

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang B, Zhang Y (2009) Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test should be used for comparisons of differences in medians, not means: comment on the article by van der Helm-van Mil et al. Arthritis Rheum 60(5):1565

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zimmermann MB (2011) The role of iodine in human growth and development. Semin Cell Dev Biol 22:645–652

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Soraya Paz.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible Editor: Lotfi Aleya

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Darias-Rosales, J., Rubio, C., Gutiérrez, Á.J. et al. Risk assessment of iodine intake from the consumption of red seaweeds (Palmaria palmata and Chondrus crispus). Environ Sci Pollut Res 27, 45737–45741 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10478-9

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10478-9

Keywords

  • Iodine
  • Dietary intake
  • Red seaweeds
  • Palmaria palmata
  • Chondrus crispus
  • Risk assessment