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Trace elements exposure influences proximate body composition and antioxidant enzyme activities of the species tilapia and catfish in Burullus Lake—Egypt: human risk assessment for the consumers

A Correction to this article was published on 17 August 2020

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Abstract

The trace elements concentration in the fish estimates the contamination degree in the aquatic environment. These toxic trace elements are transported into the human through the consumption of polluted fish. This study estimated the effect of Cd, Hg, Pb, As, and Al on tilapia species and catfish Clarias gariepinus (six for each species of fish) inhabiting Burullus Lake—Egypt 30° 33′–31° 08′ E and 30° 22′–31° 35′ N. The highest Pb concentrations recorded in the muscle of C. gariepinus 2.29 ± 0.29 μg/g while S. galilaeus was estimated the lowest Hg concentration of 0.54 ± 0.02 μg/g which indicated the presence of contaminants exceeded the limits permitted by FAO/WHO and EC. The maximum mean carbohydrate, lipid, and protein recorded in O. niloticus 18.66, 16.33, and 58.16 mg/g, respectively; moisture in O. aureus 67.33%; and ash 16.41% in O. niloticus. The lowest amount of carbohydrate was recorded in the T. zillii 14.1 mg/g, lipid, and ash in C. gariepinus 11.65 mg/g and 3.375%, respectively. Protein and moisture in the S. galilaeus were 53.75 mg/g and 60.75%, respectively. The results recorded a marked insignificant (P > 0.05) decrease in CAT, GR, and GPx activity in O. niloticus. GSH and SOD activity was an insignificant (P > 0.05) decrease in C. gariepinus. The results concluded that the trace elements concentrations exceed the maximum permissible limits recommended in fish samples set by Egypt, FAO, WHO, and EC. The estimated weekly intake of all elements through consumption of studied fish species inhabiting Burullus Lake by a child (15 kg) in Egypt is well above the PTWI recommended by FAO/WHO, whereas it is well below the PTWI for human consumption by young people (40 kg) and adult person (70 kg), at least in respect of residual levels of studied elements excluding Cd and Hg. Thus, for consumer protection, these fish species are unsafe and have hazardous effects for children, and about youth and adult consumption, caution must be taken to consider individuals eating significant amounts of fish.

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Funding

The research was supported by the National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF), Egypt.

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Correspondence to Heba H. Abdel-Kader.

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Capture and necropsy techniques were performed according to guidelines for ethical conduct in the care and use of non-human animals for research that was developed by the committee of the American Psychological Association for animal research and ethics in 2010–2011.

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Highlights

• Cd, Hg, Pb, As, and Al accumulation in the Burullus Lake—Egypt elicited a physiological response in tilapia species and Clarias gariepinus.

• Trace element concentrations exceed the maximum permissible limits recommended in fish samples set by Egypt, FAO, WHO, and EC.

• Proximate body composition and antioxidant enzyme activities showed altered values.

• The estimated weekly intake of elements for a child (15 kg) consuming fish in Egypt was above the PTWI recommended by FAO/WHO for all elements.

• The estimated weekly intake of elements for (40 kg) young people and (70 kg) adult person consuming fish in Egypt was well below the PTWI recommended by FAO/WHO except for Cd and Hg.

• These fish species are unsafe and have hazardous effects for children.

• The consumption of these species inhabiting the Burullus Lake for youth and adult people is safe and not toxic for human health except for Cd and Hg.

• Caution must be taken to consider individuals eating significant amounts of fish.

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Abdel-Kader, H.H., Mourad, M.H. Trace elements exposure influences proximate body composition and antioxidant enzyme activities of the species tilapia and catfish in Burullus Lake—Egypt: human risk assessment for the consumers. Environ Sci Pollut Res 27, 43670–43681 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10207-2

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Keywords

  • Trace elements
  • Proximate body composition
  • Antioxidant enzyme activity
  • Burullus Lake
  • Tilapia
  • Catfish