Skip to main content


Log in

The impact of neighborhood to industrial areas on health in Uzbekistan: an ecological analysis of congenital diseases, infant mortality, and lung cancer

  • Research Article
  • Published:
Environmental Science and Pollution Research Aims and scope Submit manuscript


After political sovereignty, Uzbekistan’s industry is growing fast. However, no investigation was performed so far, to evaluate whether an environmental risk, associated with the industry, is also increasing. Our aim was to investigate whether the distance from factories, as a surrogate measurement for environmental exposure to community, has any influence on some health outcomes in communities of Uzbekistan. For this first investigation, we analyzed prevalence of congenital diseases, infant mortality, and incidence rates of lung cancer, as examples for diseases associated with environmental factors. As crude measurement for the association, we used correlation and regression analysis with the distance to the next factory or plant as explanatory variable. A regression analysis demonstrated an association between the three outcome variables, with the strongest negative correlation (r = − 0.48) and the highest determination power (r2 = 0.23) for congenital diseases’ prevalence. For infant mortality and lung cancer incidence, descriptions and analyses demonstrated lower negative correlation of them with the distance and a lower predictive power of linear models. So, closer distance of the community to specific industrial plants can be considered an indirect factor of higher prevalence of congenital diseases in those communities. Prospective research is needed to further investigate whether the association between birth defects in a neighborhood of industrial plants is causal or due to confounding factors. A policy should consider a degree of known factors distribution in an environment and perform effective prevention of congenital diseases, in close communities.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Adam M, Schikowski T, Carsin AE, Cai Y, Jacquemin B, Sanchez M, Vierkötter A, Marcon A, Keidel D, Sugiri D, al Kanani Z, Nadif R, Siroux V, Hardy R, Kuh D, Rochat T, Bridevaux PO, Eeftens M, Tsai MY, Villani S, Phuleria HC, Birk M, Cyrys J, Cirach M, de Nazelle A, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Forsberg B, de Hoogh K, Declerq C, Bono R, Piccioni P, Quass U, Heinrich J, Jarvis D, Pin I, Beelen R, Hoek G, Brunekreef B, Schindler C, Sunyer J, Krämer U, Kauffmann F, Hansell AL, Künzli N, Probst-Hensch N (2015) Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. ESCAPE: a multicentre cohort study and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J 45(1):38–50

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Asian Development Bank (2015) Key indicators for Asia and the Pacific. Uzbekistan. Available from: Accessed 15 June 2019

  • Austin PC, Steyerberg EW (2015 Jun) The number of subjects per variable required in linear regression analyses. J Clin Epidemiol 68(6):627–636

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Balise VD, Meng CX, Cornelius-Green JN, Kassotis CD, Kennedy R, Nagel SC (2016) Systematic review of the association between oil and natural gas extraction processes and human reproduction. Fertil Steril 106(4):795–819

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Beelen R, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Stafoggia M, Andersen ZJ, Weinmayr G, Hoffmann B, Wolf K, Samoli E, Fischer P, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Vineis P, Xun WW, Katsouyanni K, Dimakopoulou K, Oudin A, Forsberg B, Modig L, Havulinna AS, Lanki T, Turunen A, Oftedal B, Nystad W, Nafstad P, de Faire U, Pedersen NL, Östenson CG, Fratiglioni L, Penell J, Korek M, Pershagen G, Eriksen KT, Overvad K, Ellermann T, Eeftens M, Peeters PH, Meliefste K, Wang M, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Sugiri D, Krämer U, Heinrich J, de Hoogh K, Key T, Peters A, Hampel R, Concin H, Nagel G, Ineichen A, Schaffner E, Probst-Hensch N, Künzli N, Schindler C, Schikowski T, Adam M, Phuleria H, Vilier A, Clavel-Chapelon F, Declercq C, Grioni S, Krogh V, Tsai MY, Ricceri F, Sacerdote C, Galassi C, Migliore E, Ranzi A, Cesaroni G, Badaloni C, Forastiere F, Tamayo I, Amiano P, Dorronsoro M, Katsoulis M, Trichopoulou A, Brunekreef B, Hoek G (2014) Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE project. Lancet. 383(9919):785–795

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chen EK, Zmirou-Navier D, Padilla C, Deguen S (2014) Effects of air pollution on the risk of congenital anomalies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11(8):7642–7668

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Deguen S, Kihal W, Jeanjean M, Padilla C, Zmirou-Navier D (2016) Neighborhood deprivation and risk of congenital heart defects, neural tube defects and orofacial clefts: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 11(10)

  • Hall KC, Robinson JC (2019) Association between maternal exposure to pollutant particulate matter 2.5 and congenital heart defects: a systematic review. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep.

  • Lin CK, Hsu YT, Christiani DC, Hung HY, Lin RT (2018 Dec) Risks and burden of lung cancer incidence for residential petrochemical industrial complexes: a meta-analysis and application. Environ Int 121(Pt 1):404–414.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McKenzie LM, Guo R, Witter RZ, Savitz DA, Newman LS, Adgate JL (2014) Birth outcomes and maternal residential proximity to natural gas development in rural Colorado. Environ Health Perspect 122(4):412–417

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mustafic H, Jabre P, Caussin C, Murad MH, Escolano S, Tafflet M, Périer MC, Marijon E, Vernerey D, Empana JP, Jouven X (2012) Main air pollutants and myocardial infarction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 307(7):713–721

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nicoll R (2018) Environmental contaminants and congenital heart defects: a re-evaluation of the evidence. Int J Environ Res Public Health 15(10)

  • Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Martinez D, Grellier J, Bennett J, Best N, Iszatt N et al (2009) Chlorination disinfection by-products in drinking water and congenital anomalies: review and meta-analyses. Environ Health Perspect 117(10):1486–1493

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Raaschou-Nielsen O, Andersen ZJ, Beelen R, Samoli E, Stafoggia M, Weinmayr G et al (2013) Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Lancet Oncol 14(9):813–822

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sarov B, Bentov Y, Kordysh E, Karakis I, Bolotin A, Hershkovitz R et al (2008) Perinatal mortality and residential proximity to an industrial park. Spring. 63(1):17–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shah AS, Langrish JP, Nair H, McAllister DA, Hunter AL, Donaldson K et al (2013) Global association of air pollution and heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 382(9897):1039–1048

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shah AS, Lee KK, McAllister DA, Hunter A, Nair H, Whiteley W (2015) Short term exposure to air pollution and stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 350:h1295.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vrijheid M, Martinez D, Manzanares S, Dadvand P, Schembari A, Rankin J, Nieuwenhuijsen M (2011) Ambient air pollution and risk of congenital anomalies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 119(5):598–606

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • World Health Organization (2012) Global Health Observatory data repository. Available from: Accessed 28 Dec 2019

  • World Health Organization (2018) Global Health Observatory data repository. Available from: Accessed 28 Dec 2019

  • Yu D, Feng Y, Yang L, Da M, Fan C, Wang S, Mo X (2014) Maternal socioeconomic status and the risk of congenital heart defects in offspring: a meta-analysis of 33 studies. PLoS One 9(10)

Download references


The authors say thanks to Professor D.A. Asadov for supporting an idea of this study.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



All authors have contributed significantly and all authors agree with the content of the manuscript.

TA was the author of the idea, and he collected primary data and performed the statistical analysis. He also prepared the draft version of the manuscript and is the corresponding author.

MB, as a specialist in biostatistics and epidemiology, contributed to the study’s design and the statistical analysis. She also has edited the final version of the manuscript.

IG, as a specialist in medical data, has taken part in planning the study and in collecting data from medical databases. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Timur Aripov.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Aripov, T., Blettner, M. & Gorbunova, I. The impact of neighborhood to industrial areas on health in Uzbekistan: an ecological analysis of congenital diseases, infant mortality, and lung cancer. Environ Sci Pollut Res 27, 17243–17249 (2020).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: