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Effect of O3, PM10 and PM2.5 on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in cities of France, Iran and Italy

Abstract

At present, both tropospheric ozone (O3) and particulate matters (PM) are among the most threatening air pollutants for human health in cities. The air pollution effects over public health include increased risk of hospital admissions and mortality for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases even when air pollutant concentrations are below European and international standards. The aim of this study was to (i) estimate the burden of mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases attributed to PM2.5, PM10 and O3 in nine selected cities in France, Iran and Italy in 2015 and 2016 and to (ii) compare estimated burdens at current O3 and PM levels with pre-industrial levels. The selected Mediterranean cities are among the most affected by the air pollution in Europe, in particular by rising O3 while the selected Iranian cities rank as the most polluted by PM in the world. The software AirQ+ was used to estimate the short-term health effects, in terms of mortality and morbidity by using in situ air quality data, city-specific relative risk values and baseline incidence. Compared to pre-industrial levels, long-term exposures to ambient PM2.5, PM10 and O3 have substantially contributed to mortality and hospital admissions in selected cities: about 8200 deaths for non-accidental causes, 2400 deaths for cardiovascular diseases, 540 deaths for respiratory diseases, 220 deaths for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases as well as 18,800 hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases and 3400 for respiratory diseases were reported in 2015. The study supports the need of city-specific epidemiological data and urgent strategies to mitigate the health burden of air pollution.

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Acknowledgements

This work was made possible by the technical support of the local and regional agencies in charge of air monitoring stations, e.g. the Certified Associations of Air Quality Monitoring in France (Atmo Sud, Atmo Occitanie), Environmental Protection Agencies and Department of Environment in Iran, Regional Environmental Protection Agency in Italy for supplying O3, PM10 and PM2.5 data.

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Sicard, P., Khaniabadi, Y.O., Perez, S. et al. Effect of O3, PM10 and PM2.5 on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in cities of France, Iran and Italy. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 32645–32665 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06445-8

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Keywords

  • Air pollution
  • AirQ
  • Mortality
  • Hospital admission
  • Risk assessment
  • Particulate matter
  • Ozone