DGT (diffusive gradients in thin films) technique and LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) for heterogeneous distribution of the soluble labile iron (Fe) at submillimeter resolution in lake sediment porewater are reported. The soluble labile Fe species include ion and labile organic complexes. The chemical images in two dimensions (2D) for DGT concentration of Fe (CDGT(Fe)) are investigated for Fe remobilization character. There are 902 CDGT(Fe) values between 1000 and 2000 μg L−1, 463 values between 2000 and 3000 μg L−1, and 112 values over 3000 μg L−1 in all chemical maps. Based on the linear correlation relationships between CDGT (Fe) and total Fe (TFe), total organic carbon (TOC), acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), Eh, concentrations of the soluble reactive phosphorus (P) (SRP), and soluble labile trace metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in a vertical 1D profile of sediment or porewater, Fe release mechanisms are mainly due to the reductive Fe release from iron oxyhydroxides and the decomposition of organic matter in algae biomass and deep sediment layer. It can be used to explain the formation mechanisms of Fe microniches in chemical maps with heterogeneous character to a great extent. CDGT(Fe) peak flux in the center of Fe microniche and the low CDGT (Fe) at the edge of a microniche are due to the formation of the insoluble iron sulfide and the abundant acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) in sediment. The verified co-remobilization of the soluble labile Fe and trace metals or SRP in sediment porewater can be used to predict their simultaneous release from Fe microniches with the large CDGT (Fe) peaks. The different kinds of Fe microniche zones and hot spots from sediment/water interface (SWI) to deep sediment correspond to the formation mechanisms of microniches mentioned above. Moreover, some narrow Fe microniche zones with the large CDGT (Fe) across chemical maps are due to the desorption of Fe(II) from the freshly formed oxide on Myriophyllum verticiilatur roots, which are located at sites of microniche zones.
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The authors thank Mingyue Hu, Linghao Zhao, and Dongyang Sun in the “Institute of National Research Center for Geoanalysis of China” for LA-ICP-MS analysis.
This research was financially supported by the National Major Science and Technology Program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment (2012ZX07102-004); the Open fund project of Yunnan Key Laboratory of Pollution Process and Management of Plateau Lake-Watershed (No. 230200069), and the talent project of Beijing Normal University (No. 312232102).
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Wu, Z., Wang, S. & Ji, N. Distribution character of localized iron microniche in lake sediment microzone revealed by chemical image. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 35704–35716 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06219-2
- Chemical image
- Diffusive gradients in thin films
- Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry