Manganese attenuates the effects of arsenic on neurobehavioral and biochemical changes in mice co-exposed to arsenic and manganese
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An unsafe level of manganese (Mn) was detected in the drinking water in some arsenic (As)-contaminated areas in Bangladesh. Mn is an essential trace element; however, the intake of a higher level of Mn through the drinking water is associated with the development of toxicity in humans. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of As and Mn co-exposure on neurobehavioral and biochemical alterations in a mouse model. Sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight) and manganese chloride tetrahydrate (10 mg/kg body weight) were given to mice individually and in combination with drinking water for 90 days. Results showed that individual As and Mn exposure as well as co-exposure of As and Mn significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the percent of time spent in the open arms when compared with that of control mice. In addition, percent of time spent in open arms significantly (p < 0.05) increased in co-exposed mice compared with As exposure in elevated plus maze (42.05 ± 1.10 versus 38.94 ± 0.66). In the Morris water maze test, the mean time latency to find the platform was longer in metal-treated mice in comparison to that of control mice (p < 0.05). Importantly, the co-exposed group had shorter time when compared with the As-exposed group during the training periods (p < 0.05). Moreover, co-exposed mice stayed significantly (p < 0.05) more time in the target quadrant in the probe trial in comparison with that of As-exposed mice (27.25 ± 1.21 versus 23.83 ± 0.87 s) but less time than control mice (27.25 ± 1.21 versus 43.17 ± 1.49 s). In addition, a significant (p < 0.05) alteration of biochemical parameters such as ALT, AST, ALP, BChE, and SOD as well as urea and creatinine levels were noted in the As-exposed group compared with the control group and Mn significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the effects of As in co-exposed mice. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that As and Mn may have some antagonistic effect and Mn could attenuate the As-induced neurobehavioral and biochemical alterations in co-exposed mice.
KeywordsCo-exposure Arsenic Manganese Anxiety Spatial memory Learning Blood indices
We thank MUSC Center for Global Health for their support.
This work was financially supported by the University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh (Grant No. 57-5/52/RABI/BINGAN-3/17-18), and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of People’s Republic of Bangladesh (Grant No. 39.00.0000.09.02.90.18-09/BS-168).
Compliance with ethical standards
Institutional ethical approval (No: 67/320/IAMEBBC/IBSc) was received for the animal experiment from the Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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