Advertisement

Use of sterols and linear alkylbenzenes as molecular markers of sewage pollution in Southeast Asia

  • Margaret William Thomes
  • Vahab Vaezzadeh
  • Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria
  • Chui Wei BongEmail author
Review Article
  • 67 Downloads

Abstract

Southeast Asia has undergone rapid developments in terms of urbanization, economic and population growth. The progress in sewerage treatment infrastructure has not kept pace with such developments. The inadequacy and inefficiency of sewerage systems has prompted the release of untreated sewage into the aquatic environment of Southeast Asia causing many waterborne illnesses since surface water is utilized for recreational, agricultural and aquaculture purposes and, above all, as a source of water intake in Southeast Asia. This paper will review the current data on molecular markers of sewage pollution including sterols and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in Southeast Asian aquatic environment to clarify the state of sewage pollution and the competence of sewage treatment plants (STPs) in this area. Despite the importance of sewage pollution research in the region, the number of studies using molecular markers to trace the sources of sewage pollution is limited. So far, indicators of sewage pollution have been investigated in aquatic environments of Indonesia, Vietnam, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia and Brunei among Southeast Asian countries. The concentrations and diagnostic ratios of faecal sterols and LABs show the release of untreated and primary treated urban waste into water bodies of these countries. Further studies are required to fill the data gaps in Southeast Asia and come to a better understanding of the trends of sewage pollution in this part of the world.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Sterols Linear alkylbenzenes Southeast Asia Sewage pollution Sewage treatment plant Coprostanol 

Notes

Funding information

This work was financially supported by the Institution Centre of Excellence (HICoE) Phase II Fund, Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) (Grant Number: IOES-2014D) and the University of Malaya Centre of Excellence (UMCoE) (Grant Number: RU009L 2015). We highly appreciate their financial support of this research.

References

  1. Adnan NH, Zakaria MP, Juahir H, Ali MM (2012) Faecal sterols as sewage markers in the Langat River, Malaysia: Integration of biomarker and multivariate statistical approaches. J Environ Sci 24(9):1600–1608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali MM, Humrawali N, Latif MT (2010) Composition and sources of sterols in Kuala Selangor, Selangor. Sains Malays 39(3):377–385Google Scholar
  3. Ali MM, Humrawali N, Lauf MT, Zakaria MP (2011) Composition and sources of sterols in Pulau Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia. Sains Malays 40(2):111–118Google Scholar
  4. Ali MM, Musa KA, Chiu TR, Ali SAM, Humrawali N (2015) Sterols in surface sediments of the Redang Island, Terengganu. Malays Appl Biol 44(1):41–49Google Scholar
  5. Alkhadher SAA, Zakaria MP, Yusoff FM, Kannan N, Suratman S, Keshavarzifard M, Sani MSA (2015) Baseline distribution and sources of linear alkyl benzenes (LABs) in surface sediments from Brunei Bay, Brunei. Mar Pollut Bull 101(1):397–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alkhadher SAA, Zakaria MP, Yusoff FM, Kannan N, Suratman S, Magam SM, Masood N, Keshavarzifard M, Vaezzadeh V, Sani MSA (2016) Distribution and sources of linear alkyl benzenes (LABs) in surface sediments from Johor Bahru Coast and the Kim Kim River, Malaysia. Environ Forensic 17(1):36–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alsalahi MA, Latif MT, Ali MM, Dominick D, Khan MF, Mustaffa NIH, Zakaria MP (2015) Sterols as biomarkers in the surface microlayer of the estuarine areas. Mar Pollut Bull 93(1):278–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aminah MP, Masni MA, Che A, Rahim M, Mohamad PZ (2008) Sterol Distribution in Sediment of Sungai Sepang, Selangor. Sains Malays 37(4):307–312Google Scholar
  9. Ariffin M, Sulaiman SN (2015) Regulating sewage pollution of Malaysian rivers and its challenges. Procedia Environ Sci 30:168–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bujagić IM, Grujić S, Jauković Z, Laušević M (2016) Sterol ratios as a tool for sewage pollution assessment of river sediments in Serbia. Environ Pollut 213:76–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carballa M, Omil F, Lema JM (2005) Removal of cosmetic ingredients and pharmaceuticals in sewage primary treatment. Water Res 39(19):4790–4796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carreira RS, Wagener AL, Readman JW (2004) Sterols as markers of sewage contamination in a tropical urban estuary (Guanabara Bay, Brazil): Space–time variations. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 60(4):587–598Google Scholar
  13. Carreira RS, Albergaria-Barbosa ACR, Arguelho ML, Garcia CA (2015) Evidence of sewage input to inner shelf sediments in the NE coast of Brazil obtained by molecular markers distribution. Mar Pollut Bull 90(1-2):312–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chalaux N, Takada H, Bayona JM (1995) Molecular markers in Tokyo Bay sediments: sources and distribution. Mar Environ Res 40(1):77–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cordeiro LG, Carreira RS, Wagener AL (2008) Geochemistry of fecal sterols in a contaminated estuary in southeastern Brazil. Org Geochem 39(8):1097–1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Costa RLD, Carreira RS (2005) A comparison between faecal sterols and coliform counts in the investigation of sewage contamination in sediments. Braz J Oceanogr 53(3/4):157–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Daughton CG, Ternes TA (1999) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change? Environ Health Perspect 107:907–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de Melo MG, da Silva BA, de Souza CG, da Silva Neto JCA, Soares PK, Val AL, Bataglion GA (2019) Sewage contamination of Amazon streams crossing Manaus (Brazil) by sterol biomarkers. Environ Pollut 244:818–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Devane M, Saunders D, Gilpin B (2006) Faecal sterols and fluorescent whiteners as indicators of the source of faecal contamination. Chem N Z 70(3):74Google Scholar
  20. Dsikowitzky L, Sträter M, Ariyani F, Irianto HE, Schwarzbauer J (2016) First comprehensive screening of lipophilic organic contaminants in surface waters of the megacity Jakarta, Indonesia. Mar Pollut Bull 110(2):654–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dsikowitzky L, Schäfer L, Ariyani F, Irianto HE, Schwarzbauer J (2017) Evidence of massive river pollution in the tropical megacity Jakarta as indicated by faecal steroid occurrence and the seasonal flushing out into the coastal ecosystem. Environ Chem Lett 15(4):703–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Duong HT, Kadokami K, Matsuura N, Trung NQ (2013) Screening analysis of a thousand micro-pollutants in Vietnamese rivers. Southeast Asia Water Environ 5:195–202Google Scholar
  23. Duong HT, Kadokami K, Pan S, Matsuura N, Nguyen TQ (2014) Screening and analysis of 940 organic micro-pollutants in river sediments in Vietnam using an automated identification and quantification database system for GC–MS. Chemosphere 107:462–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eganhouse RP (1997) Molecular markers an environmental geochemistry: An overview, In: Eganhouse, R. P. (Ed.), Molecular markers in environmental geochemistry. ACS Symposium Series. Washington DC: American Chemical Society, pp. 1–20.Google Scholar
  25. Eganhouse RP (2004) Molecular markers and their use in environmental organic geochemistry. Geo Soc S P 9:143–158Google Scholar
  26. Eganhouse RP, Blumfleld DL, Kaplan IR (1983) Long-chain Alkylbenzenes as molecular tracers of domestic wastes in the marine environment. Environ Sci Technol 17:523–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eganhouse RP, Olaguer DP, Gould BR, Phinney CS (1988) Use of molecular markers for the detection of municipal sewage sludge at sea. Mar Environ Res 25(1):1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Frena M, Bataglion GA, Tonietto AE, Eberlin MN, Alexandre MR, Madureira LA (2016) Assessment of anthropogenic contamination with sterol markers in surface sediments of a tropical estuary (Itajaí-Açu, Brazil). Sci Total Environ 544:432–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Froehner S, Martins RF, Errera MR (2009) Assessment of fecal sterols in Barigui River sediments in Curitiba, Brazil. Environ Monit Assess 157:591–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. González-Oreja JA, Saiz-Salinas JI (1998) Short-term spatiotemporal changes in urban pollution by means of faecal sterols analysis. Mar Pollut Bull 36(11):868–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grimalt JO, Fernandez P, Bayona JM, Albaiges J (1990) Assessment of fecal sterols and ketones as indicators of urban sewage inputs to coastal waters. Environ Sci Technol 24(3):357–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harada H, Dong NT, Matsui S (2008) A measure for provisional-and-urgent sanitary improvement in developing countries: Septic-tank performance improvement. Water Sci Technol 58(6):1305–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hartmann PC, Quinn JG, King JW, Tsutsumi S, Takada H (2000) Intercalibration of LABs in marine sediment SRM1941a and their application as a molecular marker in Narragansett Bay sediments. Environ Sci Technol 34(5):900–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hatcher PG, McGillivary PA (1979) Sewage contamination in the New York Bight. Coprostanol as an indicator. Environ Sci Technol 13(10):1225–1229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hoai PM, Ngoc NT, Minh NH, Viet PH, Berg M, Alder AC, Giger W (2010) Recent levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of the sewer system in Hanoi, Vietnam. Environ Pollut 158:913–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hughes KA, Thompson A (2004) Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers. Environ Pollut 127:315–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Humrawali N, Latif MT, Ali MM (2010) Coprostanol as sewage indicator: a case study in Kuala Selangor, Selangor. Health Environ J 1:46–50Google Scholar
  38. Huttly SRA (1990) The impact of inadequate sanitary conditions on health in developing countries. World Health Stat Q 43:118–126Google Scholar
  39. Isobe KO, Tarao M, Zakaria MP, Chiem NH, Minh LY, Takada H (2002) Qualntitative application of fecal sterols using Gas Chromatogtaphy-Mass Spectrometry to investigate fecal pollution in Tropical waters: Western Malaysia and Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Environ Sci Technol 36:4497–4507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Isobe KO, Zakaria MP, Chiem NH, Minh LY, Prudente M, Boonyatumanond R, Takada H (2004a) Distribution of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in riverine and coastal environments in South and Southeast Asia. Water Res 38:2449–2459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Isobe KO, Tarao M, Chiem NH, Minh LY, Takada H (2004b) Effect of environmental factors on the relationship between concentrations of coprostanol and fecal indicator bacteria in tropical (Mekong Delta) and temperate (Tokyo) freshwaters. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:814–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jelic A, Gros M, Ginebreda A, Cespedes-Sánchez R, Ventura F, Petrovic M, Barcelo D (2011) Occurrence, partition and removal of pharmaceuticals in sewage water and sludge during wastewater treatment. Water Res 45(3):1165–1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jeng WL, Wang J, Han BC (1996) Coprostanol distribution in marine sediments off southwestern Taiwan. Environ Pollut 94(1):47–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kaw HY, Kannan N (2016) A Review on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in South Asia with a Focus on Malaysia. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 242:153–181Google Scholar
  45. Kurniadie D (2011) Wastewater treatment using vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland in Indonesia. Amer J Environ Sci 7(1): 15Google Scholar
  46. Kuroda K, Nakada N, Hanamoto S, Inaba M, Katayama H, Do AT, Nga TTV, Oguma K, Hayashi T, Takizawa S (2015) Pepper mild mottle virus as an indicator and a tracer of fecal pollution in water environments: comparative evaluation with wastewater-tracer pharmaceuticals in Hanoi, Vietnam. Sci Total Environ 506:287–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Leeming R, Ball A, Ashbolt N, Nichols P (1996) Using faecal sterols from humans and animals to distinguish faecal pollution in receiving waters. Water Res 30:2893–2900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Leeming R, Latham V, Rayner M, Nicholas P (1997) Detecting and Distinguishing Sources of Sewage Pollution in Australian Inland and Coastal Waters and Sediments. Mol Markers Environ Geochem 671:306–319Google Scholar
  49. Li W, Dagaut J, Saliot A (1995) The application of sterol biomarkers to the study of the sources of particulate organic matter in the Solo River system and Serayu River, Java, Indonesia. Biogeochemistry 31(3):139–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Liebezeit G, Wöstmann R (2010) Coprostanol in Siak River Sediments, E Sumatra, Indonesia. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 85(6):585–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Liu LY, Wang JZ, Wong CS, Qiu JW, Zeng EY (2013) Application of multiple geochemical markers to investigate organic pollution in a dynamic coastal zone. Environ Toxicol Chem 32(2):312–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Logan GA, Fredericks DJ, Smith C, Heggie DT (2001) Sources of organic matter in Wallis Lake. RECON no. 20010089879. AGSO Research Newletter 34:15–12Google Scholar
  53. Luo XJ, Chen SJ, Ni HG, Yu M, Mai BX (2008) Tracing sewage pollution in the Pearl River Delta and its adjacent coastal area of South China Sea using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). Mar Pollut Bull 56(1):158–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Luo Y, Guo W, Ngo HH, Nghiem LD, Hai FI, Zhang J, Liang S, Wang XC (2014) A review on the occurrence of micropollutants in the aquatic environment and their fate and removal during wastewater treatment. Sci Total Environ 473:619–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lyons BP, Devlin MJ, Hamid SA, Al-Otiabi AF, Al-Enezi M, Massoud MS, Barber JL (2015) Microbial water quality and sedimentary faecal sterols as markers of sewage contamination in Kuwait. Mar Pollut Bull 100(2):689–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Magam SM, Zakaria MP, Halimoon N, Masood N, Alsalahi MA (2012) Distribution of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in sediments of Sarawak and Sembulan Rivers, Malaysia. Environ Asia 5(1):48–55Google Scholar
  57. Magam SM, Zakaria MP, Halimoon N, Aris AZ, Kannan N, Masood N, Sani MS (2016) Evaluation of distribution and sources of sewage molecular marker (LABs) in selected rivers and estuaries of Peninsular Malaysia. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(6):5693–5704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marcotullio PJ (2007) Urban water-related environmental transitions in Southeast Asia. Sustain Sci 2(1):27–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Martins CC, Venkatesan MI, Montone RC (2002) Sterols and linear alkylbenzenes in marine sediments from Admiralty Bay, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. Antarct Sci 14(3):244–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Martins CC, Ferreira JA, Taniguchi S, Mahiques MM, Bícego MC, Montone RC (2008) Spatial distribution of sedimentary linear alkylbenzenes and faecal steroids of Santos Bay and adjoining continental shelf, SW Atlantic, Brazil: origin and fate of sewage contamination in the shallow coastal environment. Mar Pollut Bull 56(7):1359–1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Martins CC, Aguiar SN, Bicego MC, Montone RC (2012) Sewage organic markers in surface sediments around the Brazilian Antarctic station: Results from the 2009/10 austral summer and historical tendencies. Mar Pollut Bull 64:2867–2870Google Scholar
  62. Martins CC, Cabral AC, Barbosa-Cintra SC, Dauner ALL, Souza FM (2014) An integrated evaluation of molecular marker indices and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) to measure sewage input in a subtropical estuary (Babitonga Bay, Brazil). Environ Pollut 188:71–80Google Scholar
  63. Masood N, Zakaria MP, Halimoon N, Aris AZ, Magam SM, Kannan N, Alkhadher SAA (2016) Anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs), particularly PAHs and LABs, in Malaysian sediments: Application of aquatic environment for identifying anthropogenic pollution. Mar Pollut Bull 102(1):160–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Masood N, Halimoon N, Aris AZ, Zakaria MP, Vaezzadeh V, Magam SM, Mustafa S, Ali MM, Keshavarzifard M, Alkhadher SAA & Bong CW (2018) Seasonal variability of anthropogenic indices of PAHs in sediment from the Kuala Selangor River, west coast Peninsular Malaysia. Environmental geochemistry and health, Advance online publicationGoogle Scholar
  65. Mater L, Alexandre MR, Hansel FA, Madureira LA (2004) Assessment of lipid compounds and phosphorus in mangrove sediments of Santa Catarina Island, SC, Brazil. J Braz Chem Soc 15(5):725–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McCalley DV, Cooke M, Nickless G (1981) Effect of sewage treatment on faecal sterols. Water Res 15(8):1019–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Memon MA (2003) Implementation of public–private partnerships for water supply and sanitation services in Metro Manila (Philippines): Successful Practices Analysis. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies.Google Scholar
  68. Moon HB, Yoon SP, Jung RH, Choi M (2008) Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as a source of sediment contamination by toxic organic pollutants and fecal sterols in a semi-enclosed bay in Korea. Chemosphere 73(6):880–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mudge SM, Seguel CG (1999) Organic contamination of San Vicente Bay, Chile. Mar Pollut Bull 38(11):1011–1021Google Scholar
  70. Mudge SM, Norris CE (1997) Lipid biomarkers in the Conwy Estuary (North Wales, UK): a comparison between fatty alcohols and sterols. Mar Chem 57(1-2):61–84Google Scholar
  71. Muniz P, da Silva DAM, Bícego MC, Bromberg S, Pires-Vanin AMS (2015) Sewage contamination in a tropical coastal area (São Sebastião Channel, SP, Brazil). Mar Pollut Bull 99(1):292–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nanyan NFM, Ismail SNH, Iznul M, Mua’azin MZ, Ali MM (2016) Sterol as an anthropogenic marker in surface sediments of Kapas Island, Terengganu. J Sustain Sci Manag 1:61–70Google Scholar
  73. Nguyen Viet Anh (2009). Sustainable Urban Sewerage and Drainage. Journal of Construction 32-37Google Scholar
  74. Nichols PD, Leeming R, Rayner MS, Latham V, Ashbolt NJ, Turner C (1993) Comparison of the abundance of the fecal sterol coprostanol and fecal bacterial groups in inner-shelf waters and sediments near Sydney, Australia. J Chromatogr A 643(1-2):189–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nordin N, Ali MM (2013) Distribution of Fecal Sterols in Surface Sediment of Sungai Tebrau, Johor. AIP Conference Proceeding 1571:460-465Google Scholar
  76. Nriagu J (1979) Global Inventory of Natural and Anthropogenic Emissions of the Trace Metals to the Atmosphere. Nature 279:409–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nshimyimana JP, Cruz MC, Thompson RJ, Wuertz S (2017) Bacteroidales markers for microbial source tracking in Southeast Asia. Water Res 118:239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Peng X, Zhang G, Mai B, Min Y, Wang Z (2002) Spatial and temporal trend of sewage pollution indicated by coprostanol in Macao Estuary, southern China. Mar Pollut Bull 45(1-12):295–299Google Scholar
  79. Peng X, Zhang G, Mai B, Hu J, Li K, Wang Z (2005) Tracing anthropogenic contamination in the Pearl River estuarine and marine environment of South China Sea using sterols and other organic molecular markers. Mar Pollut Bull 50:856–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pham NB, Kuyama T (2013) Urban domestic wastewater management in Vietnam -challenges and opportunities. WEPA (5)Google Scholar
  81. Puglisi E, Nicelli M, Capri E, Trevisan M, Del Re AA (2003) Cholesterol, β-sitosterol, ergosterol, and coprostanol in agricultural soils. J Environ Qual 32(2):466–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Readman JW, Fillmann G, Tolosa I, Bartocci J, Mee LD (2005) The use of steroid markers to assess sewage contamination of the Black Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 50(3):310–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Reeves AD, Patton D (2001) Measuring change in sterol input to estuarine sediments. Phys Chem Earth Part B 26(9):753–757Google Scholar
  84. Reeves AD, Patton D (2005) Faecal sterols as indicators of sewage contamination in estuarine sediments of the Tay Estuary, Scotland: an extended baseline survey. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci Discuss European Geosci Uni 9(1/2):81–94Google Scholar
  85. Reichardt W, Jacinto GS (2007) Organic pollution and its impact on the microbiology of coastal marine environments: A Philippine perspective. Asia J Water Environ Pollut 4:1): 1–1): 9Google Scholar
  86. Resende MF, Santos MD, Matos RC, Matos MA (2014) The analysis of faecal sterols in sediment samples by HPLC-UV using ultrasound-assisted treatment. Anal Methods 6(24):9581–9587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rinawati TH, Takada H (2013) Molecular marker of sewage contamination: distribution of linear alkyl benzenes (LABs) in Jakarta River. Prosiding SEMIRATA 2013 1(1):345–350Google Scholar
  88. Rinawati TH, KoikeT KH, Kurumisawa R, Ito M, Sakurai S, Togo A, Takada H (2012) Distribution, source identification, and historical trends of organic micropollutants in coastal sediment in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia. J Hazard Mater 217:208–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Roberts CM, McClean CJ, Veron JE, Hawkins JP, Allen GR, McAllister DE, Mittermeier CG, Schueler FW, Spalding M, Wells F, Vynne C (2002) Marine biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for tropical reefs. Science 295(5558):1280–1284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sagala A, Saut AH, Luo P (2015) Overview of Jakarta Water-Related Environmental Challenges. Water and Urban Initiative Working Paper Series. United Nations University Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability, 4, 5.Google Scholar
  91. Santos ES, Carreira RDS, Knoppers BA (2008) Sedimentary sterols as indicators of environmental conditions in Southeastern Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Braz J Oceanogr 56(2):97–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Seguel CG, Mudge SM, Salgado C, Toledo M (2001) Tracing sewage in the marine environment: Altered signatures in Conception Bay, Chile. Water Res 17:4166–4174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Su GL (2008) Assessing the effect of a dumpsite to groundwater quality in Payatas, Philippines. Am J Environ Sci 4(4):262–266Google Scholar
  94. Suratman S, Awang M, Loh AL, Mohd Tahir N (2009) Water quality index study in Paka River basin, Terengganu (in Malay). Sains Malays 38:125–131Google Scholar
  95. Suwandana E, Kawamura K, Tanaka K, Sakuno Y, Raharjo P (2011) Esherichia coli and biophysicochemical relationships of seawater and water pollution index in the Jakarta Bay. Am J Environ Sci 7(3):183–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Takada H, Ishiwatari R (1987) Linear alkylbenzenes in urban riverine environments in Tokyo: distribution, source, and behavior. Environ Sci Technol 21(9):875–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Takada H, Ishiwatari R (1990) Biodegradation experiments of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs): isomeric composition of C12 LABs as an indicator of the degree of LAB degradation in the aquatic environment. Environ Sci Technol 24(1):86–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Takada H, Ishiwatari R, Ogura N (1992) Distribution of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and linear alkylbenzenesulphonates (LAS) in Tokyo Bay sediments. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 35(2):141–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Takada H, Farrington JW, Bothner MH, Johnson CG, Tripp BW (1994) Transport of sludge-derived organic pollutants to deep-sea sediments at Deep Water Dump Site 106. Environ Sci Technol 28(6):1062–1072Google Scholar
  100. Takada H, Satoh F, Bothner MH, Tripp BW, Johnson CG, Farrington JW (1997) Anthropogenic molecular markers: Tools to identify the sources and transport pathways of pollutants.Google Scholar
  101. Takada H, Eganhouse R (1998) In: Meyers RA (ed) Encyclopedia of environmental analysis and remediation. Wiley, New York, pp 2833–2940Google Scholar
  102. Taneza P, Philp RP (2009) A Preliminary Study of the Sources of Organic Pollutants in the Iloilo River, Philippines. Environ Forensic 10(1):68–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tolosa I, Mesa M, Alonso-Hernandez CM (2014) Steroid markers to assess sewage and other sources of organic contaminants in surface sediments of Cienfuegos Bay, Cuba. Mar Pollut Bull 86(1):84–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tsutsumi S, Yamaguchi Y, Nishida I, Akiyama K, Zakaria MP, Takada H (2002) Alkylbenzenes in Mussels from South and South East Asian Coasts as a Molecular Tool to Assess Sewage Impact. Mar Pollut Bull 45:325–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tyagi P, Edwards DR, Coyne MS (2008) Use of Sterol and Bile Acid Biomarkers to Identify Domesticated Animal Sources of Fecal Pollution. Water Air Soil Pollut 187(1-4):263–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. UN ESCAP (2000) State of the environment in the Asia Pacific. UNESCAP, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  107. UNEP Regional Resource Center for Asia and the Pacific (2001) State of the Environment Vietnam. United Nations Environment Program, PathumthaniGoogle Scholar
  108. United Nations (2018) World Population Prospects 2017. Retrieved from https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/
  109. Vaezzadeh V, Zakaria MP, Bong CW, Masood N, Magam SM, Alkhadher SAA (2017a) Mangrove oyster (Crassostrea belcheri) as a sentinel species for bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sediment of the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Polycycl Aromat Compd 1-16Google Scholar
  110. Vaezzadeh V, Zakaria MP, Bong CW (2017b) Aliphatic hydrocarbons and triterpane biomarkers in mangrove oyster (Crassostrea belcheri) from the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Mar Pollut Bull 124:33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vivian CMG (1986) Tracers of sewage sludge in the marine environment: A review. Sci Total Environ 53(1-2):5–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Volkman JK, Barrett SM, Blackburn SI, Mansour MP, Sikes EL, Gelin F (1998) Microalgal biomarkers: A review of recent research developments. Org Geochem 29:1163–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Volkman JK, Revill AT, Holdsworth DG, Fredericks D (2008) Organic matter sources in an enclosed coastal inlet assessed using lipid biomarkers and stable isotopes. Org Geochem 39(6):689–710Google Scholar
  114. Wang JZ, Guan YF, Ni HG, Liu GJ, Zeng EY (2010) Fecal steroids in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta, South China: Levels, potential sources and inputs to the coastal ocean. J Environ Monit 12(1):280–286Google Scholar
  115. Wang JZ, Zhang K, Liang B (2012) Tracing urban sewage pollution in Chaohu Lake (China) using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) as a molecular marker. Sci Total Environ 414:356–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wei GL, Liu LY, Bao LJ, Zeng EY (2014) Tracking anthropogenic influences on the continental shelf of China with sedimentary linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). Mar Pollut Bull 80(1):80–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. WEPA-IGES (2013) Decentralised domestic wastewater management in Asia – Challenges and opportunities (Policy Brief, Series 1). Published by WEPA, IGES and Ministry of Environment-JapanGoogle Scholar
  118. WHO (2013) Water sanitation and health: water-related diseases. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Retrieved from www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/diarrhoea/en/ Google Scholar
  119. Widmer K, Van Ha NT, Vinitnantharat S, Sthiannopkao S, Wangsaatmaja S, Prasetiati MAN, Fapyane D (2013) Prevalence of Escherichia coli in surface waters of Southeast Asian cities. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 29(11):2115–2124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wilbers GJ, Becker M, Sebesvari Z, Renaud FG (2014) Spatial and temporal variability of surface water pollution in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Sci Total Environ 485:653–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zakaria MP (1983) Neuraminidase of Clostridium perfringens as an Indicator of Water Pollution. Thesis (M.S.). Florida Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  122. Zakaria MP, Bong CW, Vaezzadeh V (2017) Fingerprinting of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Malaysia using Environmental Forensics Techniques: A 20-year Field Data Review. In: Stout SA, Wang Z et al (eds) Case Studies in Oil Spill Environmental Forensics. Elsevier, Butterworth-Heinemann, pp 345–372Google Scholar
  123. Zamora JVM, Alvarez NR (2004) Tracing sewage pollution using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in surface sediments at the south end of the Southern California Bight. Environ Pollut 130:229–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zhang K, Wang JZ, Liang B, Shen RL, Zeng EY (2012) Assessment of aquatic wastewater pollution in a highly industrialized zone with sediment linear alkylbenzenes. Environ Toxicol Chem 31(4):724–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019
corrected publication September/2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret William Thomes
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vahab Vaezzadeh
    • 1
  • Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria
    • 1
  • Chui Wei Bong
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Ocean and Earth SciencesUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Institute for Advanced StudiesUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations