Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 26, pp 26963–26971 | Cite as

GMCs stabilized/solidified Pb/Zn contaminated soil under different curing temperature: leachability and durability

  • Fei WangEmail author
  • Yunhui Zhang
  • Zhengtao Shen
  • Hao Pan
  • Jian XuEmail author
  • Abir Al-Tabbaa
Research Article


In this study, the impact of the curing temperature on leaching behaviour and durability of GGBS-MgO-CaO (GMC)-stabilized/GMC-solidified Pb/Zn-contaminated clay soils was investigated. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test, wetting-drying cycles, freeze-thaw cycles and unconfined compression strength (UCS) test were carried out. The influence of curing temperature, binder dosage and curing time on the performance of these samples was investigated. The results show that the leachability and the durability of all samples were improved by increasing curing temperature, curing time and binder dosage. GMCs are more functional in immobilizing Pb compared with Zn, especially in immobilizing high Pb–contaminated soils. The mass loss and Pb/Zn leachability of all samples increased, while their strength decreased after cyclic wetting-drying and cyclic freeze-thaw. Furthermore, curing at 21 °C and 45 °C, the freeze-thaw resistance of 10% GMC-treated soil (GMC10) was found better than that of 10% Portland cement–treated soil (PC10). After 10 cycles of wetting-drying, GMC10 is more chemically stable than PC10.


MgO Wetting-drying cycles Freeze-thaw cycles Durability Leachability 


Funding information

This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation (No. 51608113) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2242019K40211) and a Ph.D. studentship from China Scholarship Council for the second author. The third author would like to thank the Killam Trusts of Canada for kindly providing the Izaak Walton Killam Memorial Postdoctoral Fellowship.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, School of TransportationSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of EngineeringUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  3. 3.Department of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  4. 4.Nanjing Institute of Environmental SciencesMinistry of Environmental ProtectionNanjingPeople’s Republic of China

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