Estimation of real-world traffic emissions for CO, SO2, and NO2 through measurements in urban tunnels in Tehran, Iran
- 36 Downloads
Mobile sources are considered to be one of the most important sources of air pollution among which are motor vehicles, recognized as the major contributor of air pollutants in urban areas. To determine the emissions for CO, SO2, and NO2 from motor vehicles as part of the attempt to realize the extent of traffic air pollution, measurements were carried out in two heavily traversed traffic tunnels in Tehran metropolitan area. The concentrations of pollutants and metrological and traffic data were collected through intensive measurements from September 27 to October 17, 2016. Resalat Tunnel fleet was composed of about 10% diesel-fueled vehicles and 90% non-diesel-fueled vehicles while throughout the entire duration of our campaign, only non-diesel-fueled vehicles traversed Niayesh Tunnel. Under an average traffic speed of 43 km h−1, emission factors from Resalat Tunnel campaign were measured to be (6.59 ± 2.69)E+3, (1.42 ± 0.84)E+2, and 6.80 ± 4.99 mg km−1 for CO, SO2, and NO2, respectively. These values were respectively 11% higher, 22% lower, and 40% higher than those from Niayesh Tunnel measurements which were recorded at a traffic speed of 30 km h−1. Current results indicate that the vehicular emissions in certain countries, especially the developing ones and in this case, Iran, are quite different from those measured in developed countries and that the high emission levels of SO2 in Iran are associated with the high sulfur content of the gasoline.
KeywordsTunnel measurement campaign Pollutant concentration Emission factor (EF) Traffic speed Tehran
We would like to thank the staff of TURPC, especially Mr. Mohammad Hossein Norouzi, manager of Transportation and Traffic Studies and planning without whom carrying out this project would be impossible. We would also like to thank the staff of the traffic control centers of Resalat and Niayesh tunnels for their support during these tunnel measurement campaigns, and Professor E. Fatehifar and Mr. Farzad Davardoost for their assistance in providing the air quality monitor, and special thanks to Mr. Ali Hassanpour for his warm support and his assistance in data interpretation.
This study was supported by Tehran Urban Planning and Research Center (TURPC).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Chang T, Modzelewski S, Norbeck J, Pierson WJAE (1981) Tunnel air quality and vehicle emissions. Atmos. Environ. 15:1011–1016Google Scholar
- Esteghamat F, Shahbazi H, Hosseini V (2016) “Evaluating the effectiveness of the catalytic converter replacement project for Tehran taxies” (in Farsi). The office of environment- transportation and traffic deputy municipality of Tehran. Number of document: OE/95/02/3-3/01. Available for download from http://air.tehran.ir
- Grøntoft T, Raychaudhuri MRJAE (2004) Compilation of tables of surface deposition velocities for O3, NO2 and SO2 to a range of indoor surfaces. Atmos. Environ. 38:533–544Google Scholar
- Judeikis HS, Wren AGJAE (1978) Laboratory measurements of NO and NO2 depositions onto soil and cement surfaces. Atmos. Environ. 12:2315–2319Google Scholar
- Moldovan M, Palacios MA, Gómez MM, Morrison G, Rauch S, McLeod C, Ma R, Caroli S, Alimonti A, Petrucci F, Bocca B, Schramel P, Zischka M, Pettersson C, Wass U, Luna M, Saenz JC, Santamarı́a J (2002) Environmental risk of particulate and soluble platinum group elements released from gasoline and diesel engine catalytic converters. Sci Total Environ 296:199–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- The World Road Association (PIARC) (2012) Road tunnels: vehicle emissions and air demand for ventilation.Available for download from https://www.piarc.org. Accessed 7 July 2019
- Staehelin J, Schläpfer K, Bürgin T, Steinemann U, Schneider S, Brunner D, Bäumle M, Meier M, Zahner C, Keiser S, Stahel W, Keller C (1995) Emission factors from road traffic from a tunnel study (Gubrist tunnel, Switzerland). Part I: concept and first results. Sci Total Environ 169:141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Watson AY, Bates RR, Kennedy D (1988) Atmospheric transport and dispersion of air pollutants associated with vehicular emissions. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US). Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed 7 July 2019
- Zhang Y, Wang X, Li G, Yang W, Huang Z, Zhang Z, Huang X, Deng W, Liu T, Huang Z, Zhang Z (2015) Emission factors of fine particles, carbonaceous aerosols and traces gases from road vehicles: recent tests in an urban tunnel in the Pearl River Delta, China. Atmos Environ 122:876–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar