Skip to main content

Abundance and properties of microplastics found in commercial fish meal and cultured common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Abstract

Microplastics (MPs) are environmental contaminants that are of increasing global concern. This study investigated the presence of MPs in four varieties of marine-derived commercial fish meal, followed by identification of their polymer composition using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Exposure experiments were conducted on cultured common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by feeding four varieties of commercially available fish meal to determine relationships between abundance and properties of MPs found both in meal and in those transferred to cultured common carp. Mean particle sizes were 452 ± 161 μm (± SD). Fragments were the predominant shape of MP found in fish meal (67%) and C. carpio gastrointestinal tract and gills (65%), and polypropylene and polystyrene were the most present plastic polymers found in fish meal (45% and 24%, respectively) and C. carpio (37% and 33%, respectively). Positive relationships were found between MP levels in fish meal and C. carpio. This study highlights that marine-derived fish meal may be a source of MPs which can be transferred to cultured fish, thus posing a concern for aquaculture.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  • Abbasi S, Soltani N, Keshavarzi B, Moore F, Turner A, Hassanaghaei M (2018) Microplastics in different tissues of fish and prawn from the Musa Estuary, Persian Gulf. Chemosphere 205:80–87

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Akhbarizadeh R, Moore F, Keshavarzi B, Moeinpour A (2017) Microplastics and potentially toxic elements in coastal sediments of Iran’s main oil terminal (Khark Island). Environ Pollut 220:720–731

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Anbumani S, Kakkar P (2018) Ecotoxicological effects of microplastics on biota: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 1:24

    Google Scholar 

  • Andrady AL (2011) Microplastics in the marine environment. Mar Pollut Bull 62:1596–1605

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Andrady AL (2017) The plastic in microplastics: a review. Mar Pollut Bull 119:12–22

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Andrady AL, Neal MA (2009) Applications and societal benefits of plastics. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 364:1977–1984

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Au SY, Bruce TF, Bridges WC, Klaine SJ (2015) Responses of Hyalella azteca to acute and chronic microplastic exposures. Environ Toxicol Chem 34:2564–2572

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Auta HS, Emenike CU, Fauziah SH (2017) Distribution and importance of microplastics in the marine environment: a review of the sources, fate, effects, and potential solutions. Environ Int 102:165–176

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Baalkhuyur FM, Dohaish E-JAB, Elhalwagy ME et al (2018) Microplastic in the gastrointestinal tract of fishes along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast. Mar Pollut Bull 131:407–415

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bergmann M, Wirzberger V, Krumpen T, Lorenz C, Primpke S, Tekman MB, Gerdts G (2017) High quantities of microplastic in Arctic deep-sea sediments from the HAUSGARTEN observatory. Environ Sci Technol 51:11000–11010

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Besseling E, Foekema EM, Van Franeker JA et al (2015) Microplastic in a macro filter feeder: humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae. Mar Pollut Bull 95:248–252

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brandts I, Teles M, Gonçalves AP, Barreto A, Franco-Martinez L, Tvarijonaviciute A, Martins MA, Soares AMVM, Tort L, Oliveira M (2018a) Effects of nanoplastics on Mytilus galloprovincialis after individual and combined exposure with carbamazepine. Sci Total Environ 643:775–784

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brandts I, Teles M, Tvarijonaviciute A, Pereira ML, Martins MA, Tort L, Oliveira M (2018b) Effects of polymethylmethacrylate nanoplastics on Dicentrarchus labrax. Genomics 110:435–441

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brennholt N, Heß M, Reifferscheid G (2018) Freshwater microplastics: challenges for regulation and management. In: Freshwater microplastics. Springer, pp 239–272

  • Chae D-H, Kim I-S, Kim S-K, Song YK, Shim WJ (2015) Abundance and distribution characteristics of microplastics in surface seawaters of the Incheon/Kyeonggi coastal region. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 69:269–278

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chandrappa R, Gupta S, Kulshrestha UC (2011) Impact on biodiversity: Asian scenario. In: Coping with climate change. Springer, pp 235–244

  • Choi JS, Jung Y-J, Hong N-H, Hong SH, Park JW (2018) Toxicological effects of irregularly shaped and spherical microplastics in a marine teleost, the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus). Mar Pollut Bull 129:231–240

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cole M, Lindeque P, Halsband C, Galloway TS (2011) Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: a review. Mar Pollut Bull 62:2588–2597

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cole M, Lindeque P, Fileman E, Halsband C, Galloway TS (2015) The impact of polystyrene microplastics on feeding, function and fecundity in the marine copepod Calanus helgolandicus. Environ Sci Technol 49:1130–1137

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Collard F, Gilbert B, Compère P, Eppe G, Das K, Jauniaux T, Parmentier E (2017) Microplastics in livers of European anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus, L.). Environ Pollut 229:1000–1005

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • da Costa JP, Santos PS, Duarte AC, Rocha-Santos T (2016) (Nano)plastics in the environment–sources, fates and effects. Sci Total Environ 566:15–26

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Deng Y, Zhang Y, Lemos B, Ren H (2017) Tissue accumulation of microplastics in mice and biomarker responses suggest widespread health risks of exposure. Sci Rep 7:46687

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Digka N, Tsangaris C, Torre M, Anastasopoulou A, Zeri C (2018) Microplastics in mussels and fish from the Northern Ionian Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 135:30–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.06.063

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ding J, Zhang S, Razanajatovo RM, Zou H, Zhu W (2018) Accumulation, tissue distribution, and biochemical effects of polystyrene microplastics in the freshwater fish red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Environ Pollut 238:1–9

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Duis K, Coors A (2016) Microplastics in the aquatic and terrestrial environment: sources (with a specific focus on personal care products), fate and effects. Environ Sci Eur 28:2

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Espinosa C, Beltrán JMG, Esteban MA, Cuesta A (2018) In vitro effects of virgin microplastics on fish head-kidney leucocyte activities. Environ Pollut 235:30–38

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • FAO (1986) The production of fish meal and oil. The process. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x6899e/x6899e04.htm#3.1%20The%20Principal%20Method%20of%20Processing

  • Foekema EM, De Gruijter C, Mergia MT et al (2013) Plastic in North Sea fish. Environ Sci Technol 47:8818–8824. https://doi.org/10.1021/es400931b

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Grigorakis S, Mason SA, Drouillard KG (2017) Determination of the gut retention of plastic microbeads and microfibers in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Chemosphere 169:233–238

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Haghi BN, Banaee M (2017) Effects of micro-plastic particles on paraquat toxicity to common carp (Cyprinus carpio): biochemical changes. Int J Environ Sci Technol 14:521–530

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hartmann NB, Hüffer T, Thompson RC et al (2019) Are we speaking the same language? Recommendations for a definition and categorization framework for plastic debris. ACS Publications

  • Karami A (2017) Gaps in aquatic toxicological studies of microplastics. Chemosphere 184:841–848

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Karami A, Golieskardi A, Choo CK et al (2017a) The presence of microplastics in commercial salts from different countries. Sci Rep 7:46173

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Karami A, Golieskardi A, Choo CK, Romano N, Ho YB, Salamatinia B (2017b) A high-performance protocol for extraction of microplastics in fish. Sci Total Environ 578:485–494

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Karami A, Golieskardi A, Ho YB et al (2017c) Microplastics in eviscerated flesh and excised organs of dried fish. Sci Rep 77:5473

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Karami A, Golieskardi A, Choo CK, Larat V, Karbalaei S, Salamatinia B (2018) Microplastic and mesoplastic contamination in canned sardines and sprats. Sci Total Environ 612:1380–1386

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Karbalaei S, Hanachi P, Walker TR, Cole M (2018) Occurrence, sources, human health impacts and mitigation of microplastic pollution. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:36046–36063

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kashiwada S (2006) Distribution of nanoparticles in the see-through medaka (Oryzias latipes). Environ Health Perspect 114:1697–1702

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Korshenko A, Gul AG (2005) Pollution of the Caspian Sea. In: The Caspian Sea environment. Springer, pp 109–142

  • Kosuth M, Wattenberg EV, Mason SA et al (2017) Synthetic polymer contamination in global drinking water. Orb Media

  • Li J, Yang D, Li L, Jabeen K, Shi H (2015) Microplastics in commercial bivalves from China. Environ Pollut 207:190–195

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lu Y, Zhang Y, Deng Y, Jiang W, Zhao Y, Geng J, Ding L, Ren H (2016) Uptake and accumulation of polystyrene microplastics in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and toxic effects in liver. Environ Sci Technol 50:4054–4060

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lusher AL, McHugh M, Thompson RC (2013) Occurrence of microplastics in the gastrointestinal tract of pelagic and demersal fish from the English Channel. Mar Pollut Bull 67:94–99

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Macan J, Turk R, Vukušić J, Kipčić D, Milković-Kraus S (2006) Long-term follow-up of histamine levels in a stored fish meal sample. Anim Feed Sci Technol 127:169–174

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mamedov EV (2006) The biology and abundance of kilka (Clupeonella spp.) along the coast of Azerbaijan, Caspian Sea. ICES J Mar Sci 63:1665–1673

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mattsson K, Jocic S, Doverbratt I, Hansson L-A (2018) Nanoplastics in the aquatic environment. In: Microplastic contamination in aquatic environments. Elsevier, pp 379–399

  • McIlwraith HK, Lin J, Erdle LM et al (2019) Capturing microfibers–marketed technologies reduce microfiber emissions from washing machines. Mar Pollut Bull 139:40–45

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Miles RD, Chapman FA (2006) The benefits of fish meal in aquaculture diets. IFAS Ext Univ Fla

  • Moore CJ, Lattin GL, Zellers AF (2011) Quantity and type of plastic debris flowing from two urban rivers to coastal waters and beaches of Southern California. Rev Gest Costeira Integrada-J Integr Coast Zone Manag 11:65–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Muthukumar T, Aravinthan A, Lakshmi K, Venkatesan R, Vedaprakash L, Doble M (2011) Fouling and stability of polymers and composites in marine environment. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 65:276–284

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Naji A, Esmaili Z, Khan FR (2017) Plastic debris and microplastics along the beaches of the Strait of Hormuz, Persian Gulf. Mar Pollut Bull 114:1057–1062

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • NRC (2011) Nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Obbard RW, Sadri S, Wong YQ, Khitun AA, Baker I, Thompson RC (2014) Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice. Earths Future 2:315–320

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oliveira M, Ribeiro A, Hylland K, Guilhermino L (2013) Single and combined effects of microplastics and pyrene on juveniles (0+ group) of the common goby Pomatoschistus microps (Teleostei, Gobiidae). Ecol Indic 34:641–647

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pettipas S, Bernier M, Walker TR (2016) A Canadian policy framework to mitigate plastic marine pollution. Mar Policy 68:117–122

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Phuong NN, Zalouk-Vergnoux A, Poirier L, Kamari A, Châtel A, Mouneyrac C, Lagarde F (2016) Is there any consistency between the microplastics found in the field and those used in laboratory experiments? Environ Pollut 211:111–123

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pradhan A, Patel AB, Singh SK (2019) Evaluation of live duckweed, Wolffia globosa as an allochthonous feed for Labeo rohita fry during nursery rearing. Aquac Res 50:1557–1563

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Provencher JF, Ammendolia J, Rochman CM, Mallory ML (2018a) Assessing plastic debris in aquatic food webs: what we know and don’t know about uptake and trophic transfer. Environ Rev 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1139/er-2018-0079

  • Provencher JF, Vermaire JC, Avery-Gomm S, Braune BM, Mallory ML (2018b) Garbage in guano? Microplastic debris found in faecal precursors of seabirds known to ingest plastics. Sci Total Environ 644:1477–1484

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rainieri S, Conlledo N, Larsen BK, Granby K, Barranco A (2018) Combined effects of microplastics and chemical contaminants on the organ toxicity of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ Res 162:135–143

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rochman CM, Hoh E, Kurobe T, Teh SJ (2013) Ingested plastic transfers hazardous chemicals to fish and induces hepatic stress. Sci Rep 3:3263

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rochman CM, Tahir A, Williams SL, Baxa DV, Lam R, Miller JT, Teh FC, Werorilangi S, Teh SJ (2015) Anthropogenic debris in seafood: plastic debris and fibers from textiles in fish and bivalves sold for human consumption. Sci Rep 5:14340

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Romano N, Ashikin M, Teh JC, Syukri F, Karami A (2018) Effects of pristine polyvinyl chloride fragments on whole body histology and protease activity in silver barb Barbodes gonionotus fry. Environ Pollut 237:1106–1111

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rummel CD, Löder MG, Fricke NF et al (2016) Plastic ingestion by pelagic and demersal fish from the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 102:134–141

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rustad T, Storrø I, Slizyte R (2011) Possibilities for the utilisation of marine by-products. Int J Food Sci Technol 46:2001–2014

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Salin KR, Arun VV, Nair CM, Tidwell JH (2018) Sustainable aquafeed. In: Sustainable aquaculture. Springer, pp 123–151

  • Sarafraz J, Rajabizadeh M, Kamrani E (2016) The preliminary assessment of abundance and composition of marine beach debris in the northern Persian Gulf, Bandar Abbas City, Iran. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 96:131–135

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schnurr RE, Alboiu V, Chaudhary M et al (2018) Reducing marine pollution from single-use plastics (SUPs): a review. Mar Pollut Bull 137:157–171

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Smith M, Love DC, Rochman CM, Neff RA (2018) Microplastics in seafood and the implications for human health. Curr Environ Health Rep 5:375–386

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tanaka K, Takada H (2016) Microplastic fragments and microbeads in digestive tracts of planktivorous fish from urban coastal waters. Sci Rep 6:34351. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep34351

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Trevail AM, Gabrielsen GW, Kühn S, Van Franeker JA (2015) Elevated levels of ingested plastic in a high Arctic seabird, the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis). Polar Biol 38:975–981

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Von Moos N, Burkhardt-Holm P, Köhler A (2012) Uptake and effects of microplastics on cells and tissue of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. after an experimental exposure. Environ Sci Technol 46:11327–11335

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Walker TR, Grant J, Archambault M-C (2006) Accumulation of marine debris on an intertidal beach in an urban park (Halifax Harbour, Nova Scotia). Water Qual Res J 41:256–262

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Welden NA, Abylkhani B, Howarth LM (2018) The effects of trophic transfer and environmental factors on microplastic uptake by plaice, Pleuronectes plastessa, and spider crab, Maja squinado. Environ Pollut 239:351–358

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wen B, Jin S-R, Chen Z-Z, Gao JZ, Liu YN, Liu JH, Feng XS (2018) Single and combined effects of microplastics and cadmium on the cadmium accumulation, antioxidant defence and innate immunity of the discus fish (Symphysodon aequifasciatus). Environ Pollut 243:462–471

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Whitehead JP (1985) Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei): an annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies, and wolf-herrings. Food & Agriculture Org

  • World Bank (2013) Fish to 2030: prospects for fisheries and aquaculture. Agric Environ Serv Discuss Pap 3:1–80

    Google Scholar 

  • Xanthos D, Walker TR (2017) International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): a review. Mar Pollut Bull 118:17–26

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yin L, Chen B, Xia B, Shi X, Qu K (2018) Polystyrene microplastics alter the behavior, energy reserve and nutritional composition of marine jacopever (Sebastes schlegelii). J Hazard Mater 360:97–105

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ziajahromi S, Neale PA, Rintoul L, Leusch FD (2017) Wastewater treatment plants as a pathway for microplastics: development of a new approach to sample wastewater-based microplastics. Water Res 112:93–99

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This work was supported by Iran National Science Foundation (INSF), Tehran (grant number 97001707).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Samaneh Karbalaei.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 172 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hanachi, P., Karbalaei, S., Walker, T.R. et al. Abundance and properties of microplastics found in commercial fish meal and cultured common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 23777–23787 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05637-6

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05637-6

Keywords

  • Microplastics (MPs)
  • Fish meal
  • Common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy
  • Accumulation