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Adsorption and sequestration of cadmium ions by polyptychial mesoporous biochar derived from Bacillus sp. biomass

Abstract

Bacteria-derived biochars from Bucillus sp. biomass under different pyrolysis temperature (250 °C, 350 °C, 450 °C, and 550 °C, respectively) were prepared, forming polyptychial, mesoporous graphite-like structure. The adsorption and sequestration efficiencies of Cd2+ by these biochars were evaluated, and the underlying mechanisms were then discussed. Cd2+ sorption data could be well described by Langmuir mode while the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Elovich model best fitted the kinetic data. The functional groups complexation, cation-π interactions, and interaction with minerals (including surface precipitation with phosphorus and ion exchange) jointly contributed to Cd2+ sorption and sequestration on biochar, but the interaction with minerals played a dominant role by forming insoluble cadmium salt composed by polycrystalline and/or amorphous phosphate-bridged ternary complex. The maximum sorption capacity of BBC350 in simulated water phase of soil for Cd2+ was 34.6 mg/g. Furthermore, the addition of bacteria-derived biochars (1%, w/w) decreased the fractions easily absorbed by plants for Cd in the test paddy soils by 1.9–26% in a 10-day time. Results of this study suggest that bacteria-derived biochar would be a promising functional material in environmental and agricultural application.

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Funding

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21577118 and 41701580), National Key Research and Development Plan of China (2016YFD0800700), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project (2016M590749, 2017T100605, and 2018M642992), the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province (2016JJ1024), Key Research and Development Plan of Hunan Province (2018SK2045 and 2018SK2042) and Collaborative Innovation Center of New Chemical Technologies for Environmental Benignity and Efficient Resource Utilization as well as Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SER2017-05).

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Correspondence to Feng Li.

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Li, F., Tang, Y., Li, C. et al. Adsorption and sequestration of cadmium ions by polyptychial mesoporous biochar derived from Bacillus sp. biomass. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 23505–23523 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05610-3

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Keywords

  • Heavy metals
  • Bacterial biochar
  • Sorption
  • Sequestration
  • Soil remediation
  • Polyptychial structure