Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 23, pp 23386–23398 | Cite as

Environmental Kuznets curve revisit in Central Asia: the roles of urbanization and renewable energy

  • Shun ZhangEmail author
Research Article


Based on the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis, the aim of this paper is to examine the relationships among per capita CO2 emissions, per capita real GDP, per capita renewable energy consumption, and urbanization in a panel of five Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) from 1992 to 2013. For robustness checking, three estimator techniques reveal no evidence of inverted U-shape EKC consistently. Moreover, renewable energy consumption plays negative impact on emissions, while urbanization plays positive, significantly. The findings of heterogeneous panel causality suggest that there are bidirectional causalities; each other expect no causality from emissions to renewable energy. Finally, some implications, such as developing a small renewable energy project and sustainable urbanization and strengthening in-regional and out-regional cooperation, are given in this region.


Central Asian countries Urbanization Carbon dioxide emissions Renewable energy Environmental Kuznets curve 


Funding information

This work was supported by the National Social Science Foundation of China (No. 15CGL036).


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of BusinessLuoyang Normal UniversityLuoyang City,People’s Republic of China

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