Biodiesel production processes using soybean as feedstock generates soybean cake and crude glycerol as by-products. These by-product streams were used as sole feedstocks for the production of 1,3-propanediol (PDO) using two bacterial strains of Citrobacter freundii. Soybean cake has been converted into a nutrient-rich hydrolysate by crude enzymes produced via solid state fermentation. The effect of initial glycerol and free amino nitrogen concentration on bacterial growth and PDO production has been evaluated in batch bioreactor cultures showing that C. freundii VK-19 is a more efficient PDO producer than C. freundii FMCC-8. The cultivation of C. freundii VK-19 in fed-batch bioreactor cultures using crude glycerol and soybean cake hydrolysates led to PDO concentration of 47.4 g/L with yield and productivity of 0.49 g/g and 1.01 g/L/h, respectively. The effect of PDO, metabolic by-products, and sodium and potassium salts on bacterial growth was evaluated showing that potassium salts initially enhance bacterial growth, whereas sodium salts cause significant inhibition to bacterial growth. Soybean cake hydrolysate and crude glycerol could be utilized for PDO production, but the fermentation efficiency is influenced by the catalyst used during biodiesel production.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Anand P, Saxena RK (2012) A comparative study of solvent-assisted pretreatment of biodiesel derived crude glycerol on growth and 1,3-propanediol production from Citrobacter freundii. N Biotechnol 29(2):199–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbt.2011.05.010
Barros S (2015) Brazil biofuels Annual, Biofuels-Ethanol and Biodiesel, GAIN Report Number BR15006. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service
Biebl H (1991) Glycerol fermentation of 1,3-propanediol by Clostridium butyricum. Measurement of product inhibition by use of a pH-auxostat. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 35(6):701–705
Casali S, Gungormusler M, Bertin L, Fava F, Azbar N (2012) Development of a biofilm technology for the production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from crude glycerol. Biochem Eng J 64:84–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2011.11.012
Chatzifragkou A, Papanikolaou S (2012) Effect of impurities in biodiesel-derived waste glycerol on the performance and feasibility of biotechnological processes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 95(1):13–27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-012-4111-3
Chatzifragkou A, Dietz D, Komaitis M, Zeng AP, Papanikolaou S (2010) Effect of biodiesel-derived waste glycerol impurities on biomass and 1,3-propanediol production of Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718. Biotechnol Bioeng 107(1):76–84. https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.22767
Chatzifragkou A, Papanikolaou S, Kopsahelis N, Kachrimanidou V, Dorado MP, Koutinas AA (2014) Biorefinery development through utilization of biodiesel industry by-products as sole fermentation feedstock for 1,3-propanediol production. Bioresour Technol 159:167–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.02.021
Doulgeraki AI, Paramithiotis S, Nychas GJ (2011) Characterization of the Enterobacteriaceae community that developed during storage of minced beef under aerobic or modified atmosphere packaging conditions. Int J Food Microbiol 145(1):77–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.11.030
Ferreira JS, Magali IV, Cammarota C (2018) Co-digestion of sewage sludge with crude or pretreated glycerol to increase biogas production. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25(22):21811–21821. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2260-3
Harland BF, Harland J (1980) Fermentative reduction of phytate in rye, white, and whole wheat breads. Cereal Chem 57(3):226–229
He L, Zhao X, Cheng K, Liu D (2013) Kinetic modeling of fermentative production of 1,3-Propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae HR526 with consideration of multiple product inhibitions. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 169(1):312–326. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-012-9984-1
Hirschmann S, Baganz K, Koschik IVK (2005) Development of an integrated bioconversion process for the production of 1,3-propanediol from raw glycerol waters. Landbauforsch Volkenrode 55(4):261–267
Kachrimanidou V, Kopsahelis N, Chatzifragkou A, Papanikolaou S, Yanniotis S, Kookos I, Koutinas AA (2013) Utilisation of by-products from sunflower-based biodiesel production processes for the production of fermentation feedstock. Waste Biomass Valor 4(3):529–537. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-012-9191-x
Kachrimanidou V, Kopsahelis N, Alexandri M, Strati A, Gardeli C, Papanikolaou S, Komaitis M, Kookos IK, Koutinas AA (2015) Integrated sunflower-based biorefinery for the production ofantioxidants, protein isolate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). Ind Crop Prod 71:106–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.03.003
Kaur G, Srivastava AK, Chand S (2012a) Mathematical modelling approach for concentration and productivity enhancement of 1,3-propanediol using Clostridium diolis. Biochem Eng J 68:34–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2012.07.004
Kaur G, Srivastava AK, Chand S (2012b) Advances in biotechnological production of 1,3-propanediol. Biochem Eng J 64:106–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2012.03.002
Krasnan V, Plz M, Marr AC, Markosova K, Rebros M (2018) Intensified crude glycerol conversion to butanol by immobilized Clostridium pasteurianum. Biochem Eng J 134:114–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2018.03.005
Lee CS, Aroua MK, Daud WMAW, Cognet P, Pérès-Lucchese Y, Fabre P-L, Reynes O, Latapie L (2015) A review: conversion of bioglycerol into 1,3-propanediol via biological and chemical method. Renew Sustainable Energy Rev 42:963–972. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.10.033
Leiva-Candia DE, Tsakona S, Kopsahelis N, Garcia IL, Papanikolaou S, Dorado MP, Koutinas AA (2015) Biorefining of by-product streams from sunflower-based biodiesel production plants for integrated synthesis of microbial oil and value-added co-products. Bioresour Technol 190:57–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.03.114
Lie S (1973) The EBC-Ninhydrin method for determination of free alpha amino nitrogen. Inst Brew 79(1):37–41. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2050-0416.1973.tb03495.x
Marquis RE (1968) Salt-induced contraction of bacterial cell walls. J Biotechnol 95:775–781
Metsoviti M, Paramithiotis S, Drosinos EH, Galiotou-Panayotou M, Nychas GJE, Zeng AP, Papanikolaou S (2012) Screening of bacterial strains capable of converting biodiesel-derived raw glycerol into 1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol and ethanol. Eng Life Sci 12(1):57–68. https://doi.org/10.1002/elsc.201100058
Metsoviti M, Zeng A, Koutinas AA, Papanikolaou S (2013) Enhanced 1,3-propanediol production by a newly isolated Citrobacter freundii strain cultivated on biodiesel-derived waste glycerol through sterile and non-sterile bioprocesses. J Biotechnol 163(4):408–418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2012.11.018
Mu Y, Teng H, Zhang DJ, Wang W, Xiu ZL (2006) Microbial production of 1, 3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae using crude glycerol from biodiesel preparations. Biotechnol Letters 28(21):1755–1759. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10529-006-9154-z
Narisetty V, Astray G, Gullón B, Castro E, Parameswaran B, Pandey A (2017) Improved 1,3-propanediol production with maintained physical conditions and optimized media composition: validation with statistical and neural approach. Biochem Eng J 126:109–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2017.07.003
Otte B, Grunwaldt E, Mahmoud O, Jennewein S (2009) Genome shuffling in Clostridium diolis DSM 15410 for improved 1,3-propanediol production. Appl Env Microbiol 75(24):7610–7616. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01774-09
Papadaki A, Androutsopoulos N, Patsalou M, Koutinas M, Kopsahelis N, de Castro AM, Papanikolaou S, Koutinas AA (2017) Biotechnological production of Fumaric acid: the effect of morphology of Rhizopus arrhizus NRRL 2582. Fermentation 3(3):33. https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation3030033
Papanikolaou S, Fick M, Aggelis G (2004) The effect of raw glycerol concentration on the production of 1,3-propanediol by Clostridium butyricum. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 79(11):1189–1196. https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.1103
Pateraki C, Patsalou M, Vlysidis A, Kopsahelis N, Webb C, Koutinas AA, Koutinas M (2016) Actinobacillus succinogenes: advances on succinic acid production and prospects for development of integrated biorefineries. Biochem Eng J 112:285–303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2016.04.005
Petitdemange E, Durr C, Andaloussi SA, Raval G (1995) Fermentation of raw glycerol to 1,3-propanediol by new strains of Clostridium butyricum. J Industrial Microbiol 15(6):498–502. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01570021
Petrache HI, Tristram-nagle S, Harries D, Kucerka N, Nagle JF (2006) Swelling of phospholipids by monovalent salt. J Lipid Res 47(2):302–309. https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M500401-JLR200
Rodriguez A, Wojtusik M, Masca F, Santos VE, Garcia-Ochoa F (2017) Kinetic modeling of 1,3-propanediol production from raw glycerol by Shimwellia blattae: influence of the initial substrate concentration. Biochem Eng J 117:57–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2016.09.018
Salakkam A, Webb C (2018) Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from a complete feedstock derived from biodiesel by-products (crude glycerol and rapeseed meal). Biochem Eng J 137:358–364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2018.06.018
Samul D, Leja K, Grajek W (2014) Impurities of crude glycerol and their effect on metabolite production. Ann Microbiol 64(3):891–898. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13213-013-0767-x
Sattayasamitsathit S, Prasertsan P, Methacanon P (2011) Statistical optimization for simultaneous production of 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol using crude glycerol by newly bacterial isolate. Process Biochem 46(2):608–614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2010.10.009
Tamosiunas A, Valatkevicius P, Gimzauskaite D, Jeguirim M, Mėcius V (2017) Aikas M (2017) Energy recovery from waste glycerol by utilizing thermal water vapor plasma. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(11):10030–10040. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-8097-8
Venkataramanan KP, Boatman JJ, Kurniawan Y, Taconi KA, Bothun GD, Scholz C (2012) Impact of impurities in biodiesel-derived crude glycerol on the fermentation by Clostridium pasteurianum ATCC 6013. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 93(3):1325–1335. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-011-3766-5
Wilkens E, Ringel AK, Hortig D, Willke T, Vorlop K (2012) High-level production of 1,3-propanediol from crude glycerol by Clostridium butyricum AKR102a. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 93(3):1057–1063. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-011-3595-6
Zabaniotou A, Kamaterou P, Kachrimanidou V, Vlysidis A, Koutinas A (2018) Taking a reflexive TRL3-4 approach to sustainable use of sunflower meal for the transition from a mono-process pathway to a cascade biorefinery in the context of Circular Bioeconomy. J Clean Prod 172:4119–4129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.01.151
The work presented during this study has been funded by Petrobras (Brazil) under the project 2012/00320-2.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Responsible editor: Ta Yeong Wu
About this article
Cite this article
Maina, S., Kachrimanidou, V., Ladakis, D. et al. Evaluation of 1,3-propanediol production by two Citrobacter freundii strains using crude glycerol and soybean cake hydrolysate . Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 35523–35532 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05485-4
- Biodiesel industry by-products
- Platform chemical
- Product inhibition
- Enzymatic hydrolysis