Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 19, pp 19502–19511 | Cite as

The combined effects of nitrogen fertilizer, humic acid, and gypsum on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions from a coastal saline rice field

  • Liying SunEmail author
  • Yuchun Ma
  • Yinglie Liu
  • Jia Li
  • Junyin Deng
  • Xudong Rao
  • Yu Zhang
Research Article


In coastal saline rice fields, rice production shows high greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions but low nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, few studies have focused on the combined effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and soil ameliorants on GHG emissions. Thus, a field experiment was conducted to study the combined effects of N fertilizer, humic acid, and gypsum on the global warming potential (GWP), yield-scaled greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), rice grain yield, and NUE in coastal saline rice fields in southeastern China. The experiment was conducted with eight treatments: N0, N1, N0H1, N1H1, N0G1, N1G1, N0H1G1, and N1H1G1. The codes N0, N1, H1, and G1 represented treatments without N (0 kg N ha−1), with N (300 kg N ha−1), with humic acid (0.6 t ha−1), and with gypsum (0.6 t ha−1), respectively. Compared with the treatments without N addition, the application of N fertilizer significantly increased N2O emissions and grain yield by 41.9~130.6% and 32.8~57.5%, respectively, while significantly decreased the yield-scaled GHGI by 9.4~31.9%. Humic acid amendment significantly increased N2O emissions and grain yield as compared with the treatments without humic acid. Gypsum addition had no significant effects on CH4 and N2O emissions, GWP, yield-scaled GHGI, and grain yield in relation to the treatments without gypsum. In addition, compared with the N1 treatment, the N1H1, N1G1, and N1H1G1 treatments increased the grain yield by 18.3% (p < 0.05), 2.3%, and 10.4%, and decreased yield-scaled GHGI by 9.6%, 20.5%, and 31.2% (p < 0.05), despite similar GWPs, respectively. Overall, the N1H1 and N1H1G1 treatments are the appropriate fertilizer management to realize high yield together with low environmental impacts in coastal saline rice fields in China.


Nitrogen fertilizer Humic acid Gypsum Nitrogen use efficiency Global warming potential 



We greatly appreciate the anonymous reviewers for their critical and constructive comments on this manuscript.

Funding information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41501245, 41601233), the Open Project of Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Agricultural Meteorology (JKLAM1705), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20140990), the Open Project of State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture (Y20160034), and the Special Foundation for Excellent Young Teachers and Principals Program of Jiangsu Province, China.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liying Sun
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yuchun Ma
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yinglie Liu
    • 3
  • Jia Li
    • 1
  • Junyin Deng
    • 1
  • Xudong Rao
    • 1
  • Yu Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Callaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters/Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Agricultural Meteorology, College of Applied MeteorologyNanjing University of Information Science & TechnologyNanjingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesNanjingChina
  3. 3.College of Resources and EnvironmentXingTai UniversityXingTaiChina

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