Food residue biomass product as an alternative fuel for the cement industry

Abstract

The present study focuses on the production of an alternative fuel (AF) for the cement industry from a food residue biomass (FORBI) product, generated from pre-sorted household food waste (HFW). FORBI is generated by drying and shredding the fermentable fraction of HFW collected door-to-door in the Municipality of Halandri, Greece. The key physicochemical properties such as the net calorific value (NCV), and the concentration of heavy metals and chlorine are subsequently determined using well-established international standards (EN and ISO). FORBI is evaluated as a potential AF in terms of technical feasibility and environmental impacts. Based on the characterization, FORBI is classified as a non-dangerous waste according to EWC 20 01 08, European Commission Decision 2014/955. According to EN 15359, it is classified as category 3, 2, and 1 with respect to NCV, Cl, and Hg respectively. The study concludes that FORBI is a suitable candidate as a secondary fuel for the cement industry, given its high calorific value along with its low humidity and ash content. Challenges for practical implementation include the relatively high chlorine content, the inclusion of alkalis in the cement produced, and the reduction of non-thermal NOx emissions.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. ISO 16993 (2015) Solid biofuels-conversion of analytical results from one basis to another

  2. Achternbosch MKR, Brautigam N, Hartlieb C, Kupsch Richers U, and Stemmermann P (2003) Heavy metals in cement and concrete resulting from the co-incineration of wastes in cement kilns with regard to the legitimacy of waste utilisation. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, Wissenschaftliche Berichte FZKA 6923, M. Gleis Umweltbundesamt 39–103

  3. Akdag AS, Atımtay A, Sanin FD (2016) Comparison of fuel value and combustion characteristics of two different RDF samples. Wast. Manag. 47:217–224

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Benhalal E, Zahedi G, Shamsaei E, Bahodori A (2013) Global strategies and potentials to curb CO2 emissions in cement industry. J Clean Prod 51:142–161

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Casado RR, Rivera JA, Garcva EB, Cuadrado RE, Liorente MF, Sevillano RB, Delgado AP (2016) Classification and characterization of SRF produced from different flows of processed MSW in the Navarra region and its co-combustion performance with olive tree pruning residues. Wast. Manag. 47:206–216

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. CEMBUREAU, (2011) European cement association, Information report on “The development of the European Cement Industry’, CCMI/040, CESE 1041/2007. CEMBUREAU, Evolution & Energy Trends – Cembureau Web site May. https://cembureau.eu/policy-focus/climate-energy/

  7. Chinyama MPM. (2011) Alternative fuels in cement manufacturing. In: Manzanera M, editor. Alternative fuel. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech; & Akkapeddi S. Alternative fuels for the production of Portland cement, MSc. Thesis, Auburn University, Alabama, December, 2008, http://etd.auburn.edu/etd/bitstream/handle/10415/1432)

  8. Dorn JD (1977) Use of waste and recycled material in the cement industry. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 1977 IA-13(6):576–580

    Google Scholar 

  9. Ecofys. (2017) Status and prospects of co-processing of waste in EU cement plants.. https://www.ecofys.com

    Google Scholar 

  10. EN 15400 (2011): Solid recovered fuels - determination of calorific value

    Google Scholar 

  11. EN 15414-3 (2011): Solid recovered fuels. Determination of moisture content using the oven dry method. Moisture in general analysis sample

  12. EN 15401 (2010): Solid recovered fuels - determination of bulk density

    Google Scholar 

  13. EN 15402 (2011): Solid recovered fuels - determination of the content of volatile matter

    Google Scholar 

  14. EN 15403 (2011): Solid recovered fuels - determination of ash content

    Google Scholar 

  15. EN 15407-8 (2011): Solid recovered fuels - methods for the determination of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and nitrogen (N) content

    Google Scholar 

  16. EN 15408 (2011): Solid recovered fuels - methods for the determination of sulphur (S), chlorine (Cl), fluorine (F) and bromine (Br) content

    Google Scholar 

  17. EN 15414-1 (2010): Solid recovered fuels - determination of moisture content using the oven dry method - part 1: determination of total moisture by a reference method

    Google Scholar 

  18. EN 15443 (2011): Solid recovered fuels - methods for the preparation of the laboratory sample

    Google Scholar 

  19. EPA (2007): Determination of metals and trace elements in water and wastes by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    Google Scholar 

  20. EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2013a) PRESS RELEASE environment: Commission takes Greece back to court over illegal landfills and asks for fines.. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-143_en.htm

  21. European Commission, (2013b) Best available techniques (BAT) reference document for the production of cement, lime and magnesium oxide, Industrial Emissions Directive 2010/75/EU

  22. European Commission DG ENN (2010). Preparatory study on food waste across EU 27.October 2010

  23. European Commission JRC-IPTS (2012). Technical report for end-of waste criteria on biodegradable waste subject to biological treatment. Third Working Document. August 2012

  24. Eurostat, (2010) Environmental statistics and account in Europe

  25. Eurostat (2017) Municipal waste statistics. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Municipal_waste_statistics

    Google Scholar 

  26. EΝ 15359 (2011): Solid recovered fuels – specifications and classes

    Google Scholar 

  27. Garg A, Smith R, Hill D, Longhurst PJ, Pollard SJT, Simms NJ (2009) An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste. Waste Manag 29(8):2289–2297

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Genon G, Brizio E (2007) Scenarios for RDF utilization: reuse in technological plants or energy production. WIT Trans Ecol Environ 102:961–971

    Google Scholar 

  29. Genon G, Brizio E (2008) Perspectives and limits for cement kilns as a destination for RDF. Waste Manag 28(11):2375–2385

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Haley CAC (1990) Energy recovery from burning municipal solid wastes: a review. Resour Conserv Recycl 4:77–103

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Holcim (2006) Guidelines on co-processing waste materials in cement production. The GTZ-Holcim Public Private Partnership

  32. Iozia M (2012) Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee on ‘Industrial change to build sustainable Energy Intensive Industries (EIIs) facing the resource efficiency objective of the Europe 2020 strategy’ (own-initiative opinion). Official Journal of the European Union 2012/C 43(/01)

  33. Kajaste R, Hurme M (2016) Cement industry greenhouse gas emissions e management options and abatement cost. J Clean Prod 112:4041–4052

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Karstensen K (2008) Formation, release and control of dioxins in cement kilns. Chemosphere 70(4):543–560

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. OECD, (2012) OECD environmental outlook to 2050. OECD Publishing, pp 72–135. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264122246-en

  36. Papadopoulou K, Alonso Vicario A, Niakas S, Melanitou E, Lytras C, Kornaros M, Zafiri C and Lyberatos G (2017) Life cycle thinking, the key for a circular economy: the municipality of Halandri case15th International Conference on Environmental Science And Technology 31st August - 2nd September, Rhodes, Greece

  37. Patel ML, Chauhan JS (2014) Municipal solid waste. Alternative source of energy to the cement kilns in the state of Madhya Pradesh. India Int J Envir Sust Dev 13(2):142–152

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Rahman A, Rasul MG, Khan MMK, Sharma S (2015) Recent development on the uses of alternative fuels in cement manufacturing process. Fuel 145:84–99

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Reijnders L (2007) The cement industry as a scavenger in industrial ecology and the management of hazardous substances. J Ind Ecol 11(3):15–25

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Smil V (2013) Making the modern world: materials and dematerialization. Wiley ISBN-13:9781119942535

  41. Trezza MA, Scian AN (2000) Burning wastes as an industrial resource: their effect on Portland cement clinker. Cem Concr Res 30(1):137–144

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Tsiliyannis CA (2012) Alternative fuels in cement manufacturing: modeling for process optimization under direct and compound operation. Fuel 99:20–39

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Tsiliyannis CA (2016) Cement manufacturing using alternative fuels: enhanced productivity and environmental compliance via oxygen enrichment. Energy 113:1202–1218

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Tsiliyannis CA (2017) Industrial wastes and byproducts as alternative fuels in cement plants: evaluation of an industrial symbiosis option. J Ind Ecol 22:1170–1188. https://doi.org/10.1111/jiec.12644

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Tsiliyannis CA, Fotinopoulou IL, Georgiopoulou M, Lyberatos G (2016) Using secondary fuels in cement manufacturing: a case study. In: 4th International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management CYPRUS, p 2016

    Google Scholar 

  46. Wagland ST, Kilgallon P, Coveney R, Garg A, Smith R, Longhurst PJ, Pollard SJT, Simms N (2016) Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal /refused derived fuel (RDF) in fluidized bed reactor. Wast Manag 3:1176–1183

    Google Scholar 

  47. Wellington M, Dhanjal S. (2008) Optimizing alternative fuel firing. In: 21st AFCM technical symposium and exhibition in Bangkok, March 4–7

  48. Worrell E, Martin N, Price L (2000) Potentials for energy efficiency improvements in the US cement industry. Energy 25(12):1189–1214

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This work is produced under research project Horizon 2020, Grant Agreement No 688995. Moving towards Life Cycle Thinking by integrating Advanced Waste Management Systems-[WASTE4THINK].

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Konstantina Papadopoulou.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Papanikola, K., Papadopoulou, K., Tsiliyannis, C. et al. Food residue biomass product as an alternative fuel for the cement industry. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 35555–35564 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05318-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cement industry
  • Alternative fuel
  • Co-processing
  • Food residue biomass (FORBI)