Effects of energy consumption and economic growth on environmental quality: evidence from Qatar

Abstract

This study examines the empirical effects of four variables: economic growth, energy consumption, foreign direct investment, and financial development on environmental quality in Qatar. Three environmental quality indicators, namely, per capita CO2 emissions, energy intensity (EI), and Adjusted National Savings (ANS) are used to examine the interactions between the variables using a time series dataset for the period 1980−2016. Following an appropriate multiple structural breaks unit root and cointegration tests, short- and long-run coefficients were estimated through the application of Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) model. The Toda-Yamamoto (TY) causality test was conducted to determine the causal link, if any, among the variables. Estimated results suggest a detrimental long-run effect of energy consumption on all three indicators of environmental quality. FDI has a negative long-run effect on environmental quality when it is measured by EI only. Financial development has no significant effect on any of the indicators. Bidirectional causality are noted between three variables: economic growth, energy consumption, and financial development and all three indicators of environmental quality. Policy implications are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Abbasi F, Riaz K (2016) CO2 emissions and financial development in an emerging economy: an augmented VAR approach. Energy Policy 90:102–114

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Abid M (2017) Does economic, financial and institutional developments matter for environmental quality? A comparative analysis of EU and MEA countries. J Environ Manag 188:183–194

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Acheampong AO (2018) Economic growth, CO2 emissions and energy consumption: what causes what and where? Energy Econ 74:677–692

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Adewuyi AO, Awodumi OB (2017) Renewable and non-renewable energy-growth emissions linkages: review of emerging trends with policy implications. Renew Sust Energ Rev 69:275–291

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. AFEX, RCREEE,UNDP (2015) Arab Future Energy Index, Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency. United Nations Development Program, Cairo

    Google Scholar 

  6. Afshari A, Friedrich L (2016) A proposal to introduce tradable energy savings certificates in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. Renew Sust Energ Rev 55:1342–1351

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Al-Maamary H M, S Kazem, H A, Chaichanc M T (2017) Climate change: the game changer in the Gulf Cooperation Council Region, Renew Sust Energ Rev 555-576, 76.

  8. Al-Mulali U (2012) Exploring the bi-directional long run relationship between urbanization, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission. Energy 46:156–167

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Al-mulali U, Tang CF (2013) Investigating the validity of pollution haven hypothesis in the gulf cooperation council (GCC) countries. Energy Policy 60:813–819

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Al-Mulali U, Fereidouni HG, Lee JY, Sab CNBC (2013) Exploring the relationship between urbanization, energy consumption, and CO2 emission in MENA countries. Renew Sust Energ Rev 23:107–112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Al-Mulali U, Saboori B, Ozturk I (2015) Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in Vietnam. Energy Policy 76:123–131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Al-Saleh YM, Vidican G, Natarajan L, Theeyattuparampil VV (2012) Carbon capture, utilization and storage scenarios for the Gulf Cooperation Council region: a Delphi-based foresight study. Futures 44:105–115

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Andreoni J, Levinson A (2001) The simple analytics of the environmental Kuznets curve. J Public Econ 80:269–286

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Ang, J B (2007). Workers’ remittances and economic growth in the Philippines. Social Research Center, University of Santo Tomas, (http://www.degit.ifw-kiel.de/papers/degit_12/C012_029.pdf). Accessed 30 Dec 2018

  15. Ang JB (2008) Economic development, pollutant emissions and energy consumption in Malaysia. J Policy Model 30:271–278

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Apergis N, Ozturk I (2015) Testing environmental Kuznets hypothesis in Asian Countries. Ecol Indic 52:16–22

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Apergis N, Payne JE (2011) A dynamic panel study of economic development and the electricity consumption-growth nexus. Energy Econ 33:770–781

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Appiah AO (2018) Investigating the multivariate Granger causality between energy consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions in Ghana. Energy Policy 112:198–208

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Arouri MEH, Youssef AB, Mhenni H, Rault C (2012) Energy consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions in Middle East and North African countries. Energy Policy 45:342–349

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Ashfari, A., Fredrich, L. (2016) A proposal to introduce tradable energy savings certificates in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. 55, 1342-1351

  21. Ashiruddin, G., Salahuddin, M., Alam, K., & Gow, J. (2017). Ecological Footprint and real income: Panel data evidence from the 27 highest emitting countries, Ecological Indicators 77,166–175

  22. Atalla TN, Hunt LC (2016) Modelling residential electricity demand in the GCC countries. Energy Econ 59:149–158

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Bai J (1999) Likelihood ratio tests for multiple structural changes. J Econ 91:299–323

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Bai J, Perron P (2003) Computation and analysis of multiple structural change models. J Appl Econ 18(1):1–22

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Begum RA, Sohag K, Abdullah SMS, Jafar M (2015) CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic and population growth in Malaysia. Renew Sust Energ Rev 41:594–601

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Behera SR, Dash DP (2017) The effect of urbanization, energy consumption and foreign direct investment on the carbon dioxide emission in the SSEA (South and Southeast Asian) region. Renew Sust Energ Rev 70:96–106

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Bekhet HA, Matar A, Yasmin T (2017) CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, and financial development in GCC countries: dynamic simultaneous equation models. Renew Sust Energ Rev 70:117–132

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Bekun FV, Emir F, Sarkodie SA (2019) Another look at the relationship between energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and economic growth in South Africa. Sci Total Environ 655:759–765

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Boutabba MA (2014) The impact of financial development, income, energy and trade on carbon emissions: evidence from the Indian economy. Econ Model 40:33–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Cai Y, Sam CY, Chang T (2018) Nexus between clean energy consumption, economic growth and CO2 emissions. J Clean Prod 182:1001–1011

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Carrion-i-Silvestre JL, Kim D, Perron P (2009) GLS-based unit root tests with multiple structural breaks under both the null and alternative hypotheses. Economic Theory 25:1754–1792

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Chang C (2013) A multivariate causality test of carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China. Appl Energy 87:3553–3537

    Google Scholar 

  33. Chang SC (2015) Effects of financial developments and income on energy consumption. Int Rev Econ Financ 35:28–44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Charfeddine L, Al-Malk AY, Kholoud A l, Korbi KA (2018) Is it possible to improve environmental quality without reducing economic growth: evidence from the Qatar economy. Renew Sust Energ Rev 82:25–39

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Chimeli AB, Braden JB (2009) A capital scarcity theory of the environmental Kuznets curve. Environ Dev Econ 14:541–564

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Di Vita G (2008) Is the discount rate relevant in explaining the Environmental Kuznets Curve? J Pol Mod 30:191–207

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Dogan E, Seker F (2016) The influence of real output, renewable and non-renewable energy, trade and financial development on carbon emissions in the top renewable energy countries. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 60:1074–1085

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Dogan E, Turkekul B (2016) CO2 emissions, real output, energy consumption, trade, urbanization and financial development: testing the EKC hypothesis for the USA. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:1203–1213

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Elliott G, Rothenberg TJ, Stock JH (1996) Efficient tests for an autoregressive unit root. Econometrica 64:813–836

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Emtairah T, Chaaban F (2013) Energy Efficiency. In: Gelil IA, El-Ashrey M, Saab N (eds) Arab Environment: Sustainable Energy. Annual Report of Arab Forum for Environment and Development 2013. Technical Publications, Beirut

    Google Scholar 

  41. Engle RF, Granger CWJ (1987) Cointegration and error correction representation: estimation and testing. Econometrica 55:251–276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Farhani S, Ozturk I (2015) Causal relationship between CO2 emissions, real GDP, energy consumption, financial development, trade openness, and urbanization in Tunisia. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:15663–15676. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4767-1

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Glinskiy V, Serga L, Khvan M (2016) Assessment of Environmental Parameters Impact on the Level of Sustainable Development of Territories. Procedia CIRP 40:625–630

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Granger CWJ (1969) Investigating causal relations by econometric models and cross-spectral methods. Econometrica 37:424–438

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Grossman G, Krueger A (1995) Economic environment and the economic growth. Q J Econ 110(2):353–377

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Hakimi A, Hamdi H (2016) Trade liberalization, FDI inflows, environmental quality and economic growth: a comparative analysis between Tunisia and Morocco. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 58:1445–1456

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Hamilton K (2000) ‘Genuine Saving as a Sustainability Indicator’. World Bank Environment Department Environmental Economics Series, (Paper No. 77). Washington, DC : World Bank

  48. Hertog S, Luciani G (2009) Energy and Sustainability policies in the GCC, The Center for the Study of Global Governance, Kuwait Program on Development, Governance and Globalization in the Gulf States. London School of Economics, London

    Google Scholar 

  49. Ibrahim MH (2005) Sectoral effects of monetary policy: evidence from Malaysia. Asian Econ J 19:83–102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Islam F, Shahbaz M, Ahmed AU, Alam M (2013) Financial development and energy consumption nexus in Malaysia: a multivariate time series analysis. Econmod 30:435–441

    Google Scholar 

  51. Jalil A, Feridun M (2011) The impact of growth, energy and financial development on the environment in China: a cointegration analysis. Energy Econ 33:284–291

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Kijima M, Nishide K, Ohyama A (2010) Economic models for the environmental Kuznets curve: a survey. J Econ Dyn Control 34:1187–1201

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Koçak E, Şarkgüneşi A (2018) The impact of foreign direct investment on CO2 emissions in Turkey: new evidence from cointegration and bootstrap causality analysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:790–804

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. Koengkan M, Fuinhas JA, Marques M (2018) Does financial openness increase environmental degradation? Fresh evidence from MERCOSUR countries. Environ Sci Pollut Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3057-0

  55. Kuznets S (1955) Economic growth and income and inequality. Am Econ Rev 45:1–28

    Google Scholar 

  56. Lahn G, Preston F (2013) Targets to promote energy savings in Gulf Cooperation Council States. Energy Strat Rev 2:19–30

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Lau LS, Choong CH, Eng YK (2014) Investigation of the environmental Kuznets curve for carbon emissions in Malaysia: do foreign direct investment and trade matter? Energy Policy 68:490–497

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Le T-H, Chang Y, Park D (2016) Trade openness and environmental quality: international evidence. Energy Policy 92:45–55

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Lean HH, Smyth R (2010) CO2 emissions, electricity consumption and output in ASEAN countries. Appl Energy 87:1858–1864

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. Lieb CM (2002) The environmental Kuznets curve and satiation: a simple static model. Environ Dev Econ 7:429–448

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Lotfalipour MR, Falahi MA, Ashena M (2010) Economic growth, CO2 emissions and fossil fuels consumption in Iran. Energy 35:5115–5120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Lv Z, Xu T (2018) Is economic globalization good or bad for the environmental quality? New evidence from dynamic heterogeneous panel models. Technological Forecasting & Social Change. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2018.08.004

  63. Algunaibet I.M, Matar W (2016). The Responsiveness of Fuel Demand to Gasoline Price in Passenger Transport: The Case Study of Saudi Arabia, King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center, Riyadh.

  64. McConnell KE (1997) Income and the demand for environmental quality. Environ Dev Econ 2:383–399

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Mikayilov JI, Galeotti M, Hasanov FJ (2018) The impact of economic growth on CO2 emissions in Azerbaijan. J Clean Prod 197:1558–1572

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Mirza FM, Kanwal A (2017) Energy consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Pakistan: dynamic causality analysis. Renew Sust Energ Rev 72:1233–1240

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. Mitsubishi Heavy Industry. Efficient Use of Fossil Fuels(2016) https://www.mhiglobal.com/discover/earth/issue/history/future/efficiency.html. Accessed 05 Jan 2019

  68. Morakabati Y, Beavis J, Fletcher J (2014) Planning for a Qatar without oil: tourism and economic diversification, a battle of perceptions. Tour Plan Dev 11:415–426

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Mrabet Z, Alsamara M (2017) Testing the Kuznets curve hypothesis for Qatar: a comparison between carbon dioxide and ecological footprint. Renew Sust Energ Rev 70:1366–1375

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. Narayan PK, Saboori B, Soleymani A (2016) Economic growth and emissions. Econ Model 53:388–397

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Nasreen S, Anwar S, Ozturk I (2017) Financial stability, energy consumption and environmental quality: evidence from South Asian economies. Renew Sust Energ Rev 67:1105–1125

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. Nelson C, Plosser C (1982) Trends and random walks in macroeconomic time series: some evidence and implications. J Monet Econ 10:130–162

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Omri A, Nguyen DK, Rault C (2014) Causal interactions between CO2 emissions, FDI, and economic growth: evidence from dynamic simultaneous-equation models. Econ Model 42:382–389

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Omri A, Daly S, Rault C, Chaibi A (2015) Financial development, environmental quality, trade and economic growth: what causes what in MENA countries. Energy Econ 48:2010–2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2015.01.008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Ozcan B (2013) The nexus between carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Middle East countries: a panel data analysis. Energy Policy 62:1138–1147

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Ozokcu S, Ozdemir O (2017) Economic growth, energy and environmental Kuznets curve. Renew Sust Energ Rev 72:639–647

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Ozturk I, Acaravci A (2010) CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Turkey. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14(9):3220–3225

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Ozturk I, Acaravci A (2011) Electricity consumption and real GDP causality nexus: evidence from ARDL bounds testing approach for 11 MENA countries. Appl Energy 88:2885–2892

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Ozturk I, Acaravci A (2013) The long-run and causal analysis of energy, growth, openness and financial development on carbon emissions in Turkey. Energy Econ 36:262–267

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Ozturk I & Acaravci A (2016) Energy consumption, CO2 emissions, economic growth and foreign trade relationship in Cyprus and Malta. Energy Sources, Part B: Econ Plan and Pol 11(4):321–327

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. Panayotou T (1993) Empirical Tests and Policy Analysis of Environmental Degradation at Different Stages of Economic Development. Technology and Programme, International Labour Office, Geneva. Working Paper WP238.

  82. Pao HT, Tsai CM (2011) Modeling and forecasting the CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Brazil. Energy 36:2450–2458

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Pao H, Yu H, Yang Y (2011) Modeling the CO2 emissions, energy use and economic growth in Russia. Energy 36:5094–5100

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Park Y, Meng F, Baloch M A (2018). The effect of ICT, financial development, growth, and trade openness on CO2 emissions: an empirical analysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3108-6.

  85. Perez Suarez R, Lopez-Menendez AJ (2015) Growing Green? Forecasting CO2 emissions with environmental Kuznets curves and logistic growth models. Environ Sci Pollut Res 54:428–437

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. Pesaran MH, Shin Y, Smith RP (1999) Pooled mean group estimation of dynamic heterogeneous panels. J Am Stat Assoc 94(446):621–634

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Pesaran H, Shin Y, Smith R (2001) Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships. J Appl Econ 16(3):289–326

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Prieur F (2009) The environmental Kuznets curve in a world of irreversibility. Economic Theory 40:57–90

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Qadir A, Mokhtar M, Khalipour R, Milani D, Vassallo A (2013) Potential for solar-assisted post-combustion carbon capture in Australia. Appl Energy 111:175–185

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  90. QNV Qatar National Vision (2008) General Secretariat For Development Planning ; .http://www.mdps.gov.qa/en/qnv/Documents/QNV2030_English_v2.pdf

  91. Rafindadi AA, Muye IM, Kaita RA (2018) The effects of FDI and energy consumption on environmental pollution in predominantly resource-based economies of the GCC. Sus En Tech and Assess 25:126–137

    Google Scholar 

  92. Rahman MM (2017) Do population density, economic growth, energy use and exports adversely affect environmental quality in Asian populous countries? Renew Sust Energy Rev 77:506–511

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Ramadhan M, Naseeb A (2011) The cost-benefit analysis of implementing photovoltaic solar system in the state of Kuwait. Renew Energy 36:1272–1276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Saboori B, Sulaiman J (2013) CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries: a cointegration approach. Energy 55:813–822

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Saboori B., Sapri M., Baba M. (2014) Economic growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions in OECD (Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development)’s transport sector: a fully modified bi-directional relationship approach Energy, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2013.12.048

  96. Sahzabi A, Saaki K, Yousefi H, Sugai Y (2011) CO2 emission and economic growth of Iran. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 16(1):63–82

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Saidi K, Mbarek MB (2017) The impact of income, trade, urbanization, and financial development on CO2 emissions in 19 emerging economies. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(14):12748–12757

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  98. Salahuddin M, Gow J (2014) Economic growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Energy 73:44–58

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Salahuddin M, Khan S (2013) Empirical link between economic growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Australia. J Dev Areas 47(2):81–92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Salahuddin M, Gow J, Ozturk I (2015) Is the long-run relationship between economic growth, electricity consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and financial development in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries robust? Renew Sust Energy Rev 51:317–326

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  101. Salahuddin M, Alam K, Ozturk I (2016) The effects of Internet usage and economic growth on CO2 emissions in OECD countries: a panel investigation. Renew Sust Energy Rev 62:1226–1235

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Salahuddin M, Alam K, Ozturk I, Sohag K (2018) The effects of electricity consumption, economic growth, financial development and foreign direct investment on CO2 emissions in Kuwait. Renew Sust Energy Rev 81:2002–2010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Saud S, Danish CS (2019) An empirical analysis of financial development and energy demand: establishing the role of globalization. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26:2253–2269. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2488-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Saud S, Chen S, Danish HA (2018) Impact of financial development and economic growth on environmental quality: an empirical analysis from Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) countries. Environ Sci Pollut Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3688-1

  105. Scharfenort N (2012) Urban development and social change in Qatar: the Qatar National Vision 2030 and the 2022 FIFA World Cup. J Arab Stud 2:209–230

    Article  Google Scholar 

  106. Shafik N, Bandyopadhyay S (1992). Economic Growth and Environmental Quality: Time Series and Cross-country Evidence. The World Bank, Washington DC. Background Paper for the World Development Report 1992

  107. Shahbaz M, Khan S, Tahrir MI (2013) The dynamic links between energy consumption, financial development and trade in China: fresh evidence from multivariate framework analysis. Energy Econ 40:8–21

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Shahbaz M, Mutascu M, Azim P (2013a) Environmental Kuznets curve in Romania and the role of energy consumption. Renew Sust Energ Rev 18:165–173

    Article  Google Scholar 

  109. Shahbaz M, Hye QMA, Tiwari AK, Leitão NC (2013b) Economic growth, energy consumption, financial development, international trade and CO2 emissions in Indonesia. Renew Sust Energ Rev 25:109–121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  110. Shahbaz M, Tiwari AK, Nasir M (2013c) The effects of financial development, economic growth, coal consumption, and trade openness on CO2 emissions in South Africa. Energy Policy 61:1452–1459

    Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Shahbaz M, Solarin SA, Mahmood H, Auri M (2013d) Does financial development reduce CO2 emissions in Malaysian economy? A time series analysis. Econ Model 35:145–152

    Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Shahbaz M, Uddin GS, Ur Rehman I, Kashif I (2014) Industrialization, electricity consumption and CO2 emissions in Bangladesh. Renew Sust Energ Rev 31(3):575–586

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  113. Shahbaz M, Dube S, Ozturk I, Jalil A (2015) Testing the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in Portugal. Int J Energy Econ Policy 5(2):475–481

    Google Scholar 

  114. Shahbaz M, Shahzad SJH, Ahmad N, Alam S (2016) Financial development and environmental quality: the way forward. Energy Policy 98:353–364

    Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Shahbaz M, Nasir MA, Roubaud D (2018) Environmental degradation in France: the effects of FDI, financial development, and energy innovations. Eneeco. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2018.07.020

  116. Soytas U, Sari R (2009) Energy consumption, economic growth and carbon emissions: challenges faced by an EU candidate member. Ecol Econ 68:1667–1675

    Article  Google Scholar 

  117. Sung B, Song W, Park S (2018) How foreign direct investment affects CO2 emission levels in the Chinese manufacturing industry: evidence from panel data. Econ Syst 42:320–331

    Article  Google Scholar 

  118. Tamazian A, Rao BB (2010) Do economic, financial and institutional developments matter for environmental degradation? Evidence from transitional economies. Energy Econ 32(1):137–145

    Article  Google Scholar 

  119. Tamazian A, Peneiro J, Vadlamannati KC (2009) Does higher economic and financial development lead to environmental degradation: evidence from BRIC countries. Energy Policy 37:246–253

    Article  Google Scholar 

  120. Tan F, Lean HH, Khan H (2014) Growth and environmental quality in Singapore: is there any trade-off? Ecol Indic 43:149–155

    Article  Google Scholar 

  121. Toda HY, Yamamoto T (1995) Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes. J Econ 66:225–250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  122. Twerefoua DK, Danso-Mensah K, Bokpin GA (2017) The environmental effects of economic growth and globalization in Sub-Saharan Africa: a panel general method of moments approach. Res Int Bus Financ 42:939–949

    Article  Google Scholar 

  123. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (2015). http://www.eia.gov

  124. Wang M, Han J, Dunn JB, Cai H, Elgowaing A (2012) Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of ethanol from corn sugarcane and cellulosic biomass for US use. Environ Res Lett 7:4

    Google Scholar 

  125. World Bank, (2018). World Development Indicators, The World Bank, Washington DC, USA, available from: http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators Accessed on 03.12.2018

  126. You WH, Zhu HM, Yu K, Peng C (2015) Democracy, financial openness, and global carbon dioxide emissions: heterogeneity across existing emission levels. World Dev 66:189–207

    Article  Google Scholar 

  127. Zhang D, Alhorr Y, Elsarrag E, Marafia A, Lettieri P, Papageorgioua LG (2017) Fair design of CCS infrastructure for power plants in Qatar under carbon trading scheme. Int J Green Gas Cont 56:43–54

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  128. Zivot E, Andrews DW (1992) Further evidence on the great crash, the oil price shock, and the unit-root hypothesis. J. Bus Econ Stat 10:251–270

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors are very grateful to the editor and two anonymous referees whose comments have significantly improved this work. All remaining errors are ours.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohammad Salahuddin.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible editor: Muhammad Shahbaz

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Salahuddin, M., Gow, J. Effects of energy consumption and economic growth on environmental quality: evidence from Qatar. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 18124–18142 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05188-w

Download citation

Keywords

  • Economic growth
  • Energy consumption
  • Environmental quality
  • Qatar