Synthetic melanin nanoparticles as peroxynitrite scavengers, photothermal anticancer and heavy metals removal platforms

Abstract

Melanin is a ubiquitous natural polyphenolic pigment with versatile applications including physiological functions. This polymeric material is found in a diversity of living organisms from bacteria to mammals. The biocompatibility and thermal stability of melanin nanoparticles make them good candidates to work as free radical scavengers and photothermal anticancer substrates. Research studies have identified melanin as an antioxidative therapeutic agent and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger that includes neutralization of peroxynitrite. In addition, melanin nanoparticles have emerged as an anticancer photothermal platform that has the capability to kill cancer cells. Recently, melanin nanoparticles have been successfully used as chelating agents to purify water from heavy metals, such as hexavalent chromium. This review article highlights some selected aspects of cutting-edge melanin applications. Herein, we will refer to the recent literature that addresses melanin nanoparticles and its useful physicochemical properties as a hot topic in biomaterial science. It is expected that the techniques of Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and time-resolved Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) will have a strong impact on the full characterization of melanin nanoparticles and the subsequent exploration of their physiological and chemical mechanisms.

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Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Dr. Keith R. Miller and Mrs. Linda Scott for their valuable feedbacks on some aspects of this paper.

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Maher, S., Mahmoud, M., Rizk, M. et al. Synthetic melanin nanoparticles as peroxynitrite scavengers, photothermal anticancer and heavy metals removal platforms. Environ Sci Pollut Res 27, 19115–19126 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05111-3

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Keywords

  • Melanin nanoparticles
  • Peroxynitrite scavengers
  • Photothermal anticancer platform
  • Heavy metals removal agent
  • ROS
  • Eumelanin