Skip to main content

Past and emerging topics related to electronic waste management: top countries, trends, and perspectives

Abstract

A bibliometric analysis was performed to assess historical and recent research trends regarding e-waste studies from 1998 to 2018. Documents related to e-waste were identified from the Clarivate Analytics Web of Science© (WoS) database, and a total of 3311 academic articles was retrieved. The analysis was performed from four main aspects: (1) publication activity by year, by WoS category, and by geographic distribution; (2) journals; (3) most-cited papers; and (4) top 10 countries and author keyword analysis. The number of publications concerning e-waste issues has increased substantially over the last 20 years, especially in the environmental science category, and more than a third of the publications were produced in China (1181 records). Waste Management and Environmental Science & Technology were the most sought-after journals for disseminating the results. Studies related to “e-waste flow analysis,” “recycling,” “recovery of precious metals,” and “risk assessment of recycling areas” have been the most common for several years. The analysis of keywords suggested that there are many topics on electronic waste and that each country has presented a different focus of research. Overall, the bibliometric analysis proved to be an efficient tool with which to monitor historical and current research trends and to evaluate the sheer volume of currently existing scientific literature on e-waste topics.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  • Abbasi G, Buser AM, Soehl A, Murray MW, Diamond ML (2015) Stocks and flows of PBDEs in products from use to waste in the U.S. and Canada from 1970 to 2020. Environ Sci Technol 49:1521–1528

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aguirre MA, Hidalgo M, Canals A, Nóbrega JA, Pereira-Filho ER (2013) Analysis of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and multivariate analysis. Talanta 117:419–424

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Akcil A, Erust C, Gahana CS, Ozgun M, Sahin M, Tuncuk A (2015) Precious metal recovery from waste printed circuit boards using cyanide and non-cyanide lixiviants—a review. Waste Manag 45:258–271

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Andrade DF, Fortunato FM, Pereira-Filho ER (2019) Calibration strategies for determination of the In content in discarded liquid crystal displays (LCD) from mobile phones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Anal Chim Acta 1061:42–49

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Andrews D, Raychaudhuri A, Frias C (2000) Environmentally sound technologies for recycling secondary lead. J Power Sources 88:124–129

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aquino FWB, Pereira-Filho ER (2015) Analysis of the polymeric fractions of scrap from mobile phones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: chemometric applications for better data interpretation. Talanta 134:65–73

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aquino FWB, Santos JM, Carvalho RRV, Coelho JAO, Pereira-Filho ER (2015) Obtaining information about valuable metals in computer and mobile phone scraps using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). RSC Adv 5:67001–67010

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aquino FWB, Paranhos CM, Pereira-Filho ER (2016) Method for the production of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC)/ABS standards for direct Sb determination in plastics from e-waste using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. J Anal At Spectrom 31:1228–1233

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baldé CP, Kuehr R, Blumenthal K, Gill SF, Kern M, Micheli P, Magpantay E, Huisman J (2015) E-waste statistics: Guidelines on classifications, reporting and indicators. United Nations University (UNU), IAS-SCYCLE, Bonn

    Google Scholar 

  • Baldé CP, Forti V, Gray V, Kuehr R, Stegmann P (2017) The global e-waste monitor—2017. United Nations University (UNU), International Telecommunication Union (ITU) & International Solid Waste Association (ISWA), Bonn

    Google Scholar 

  • Barontini F, Cozzani V (2006) Formation of hydrogen bromide and organobrominated compounds in the thermal degradation of electronic boards. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 77:41–55

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Batagelj V, Cerinsek M (2013) On bibliographic networks. Scientometrics 96:845–864

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bi X, Thomas GO, Jones KC, Qu W, Sheng G, Martin FL, Fu J (2007) Exposure of electronics dismantling workers to polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in South China. Environ Sci Technol 41:5647–56530

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Börner K, Chen C, Boyack KW (2003) Visualizing knowledge domains. Annu Rev Inf Sci Technol 37:179–255

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boudry C, Baudouin C, Mouriaux F (2018) International publication trends in dry eye disease research: a bibliometric analysis. Ocul Surf 16:173–179

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Breivik K, Armitage JM, Wania F, Jones KC (2014) Tracking the global generation and exports of e-waste. Do existing estimates add up? Environ Sci Technol 48:8735–8743

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carvalho RRV, Coelho JAO, Santos JM, Aquino FWB, Carneiro RL, Pereira-Filho ER (2015) Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) combined with hyperspectral imaging for the evaluation of printed circuit board composition. Talanta 134:278–283

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Castro JP, Pereira-Filho ER (2018) Spectroanalytical method for evaluating the technological elements composition of magnets from computer hard disks. Talanta 189:205–210

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen H, Yang Y, Zhou J (2014) Global trends of compost research from 1997 to 2012: a bibliometric analysis based on SCI database. Asian J Chem 26:5242–5248

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chiu WT, Ho YS (2007) Bibliometric analysis of tsunami research. Scientometrics 73:3–17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chuang KY, Huang YL, Ho YS (2007) A bibliometric and citation analysis of stroke-related research in Taiwan. Scientometrics 72:201–212

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Costa VC, Aquino FWB, Paranhos CM, Pereira-Filho ER (2017a) Identification and classification of polymer e-waste using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and chemometric tools. Polym Test 59:390–395

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Costa VC, Aquino FWB, Paranhos CM, Pereira-Filho ER (2017b) Use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of polycarbonate (PC) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) concentrations in PC/ABS plastics from e-waste. Waste Manag 70:212–221

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Costa VC, Castro JP, Andrade DF, Babos DV, Garcia JA, Sperança MA, Catelani TA, Pereira-Filho ER (2018) Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) applications in the chemical analysis of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Trends Anal Chem 108:65–73

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cucchiella F, D'Adamo I, Koh SCL, Rosa P (2015) Recycling of WEEEs: an economic assessment of present and future e-waste streams. Renew Sust Energ Rev 51:263–272

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cui JR, Forssberg E (2003) Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review. J Hazard Mater 99:243–263

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cui JR, Zhang LF (2008) Metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste: a review. J Hazard Mater 158:228–256

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dodson JR, Parker HL, García AM, Hicken A, Asemave K, Farmer TJ, He H, Clark JH, Hunt AJ (2015) Bio-derived materials as a green route for precious & critical metal recovery and re-use. Green Chem 17:1951–1965

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Durmusoglu A (2016) A pre-assessment of past research on the topic of environmental-friendly electronics. J Clean Prod 129:305–314

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • EC (2011) Directive 2011/65/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2011 on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (recast). European Commission

  • Electronics Take Back Coalition (2014) Facts and figures on e-waste and recycling. http://www.electronicstakeback.com/wp-content/uploads/Facts_and_Figures_on_EWaste_and_Recycling.pdf. Accessed 11 February 2019

  • Farzana R, Rajarao R, Hassan K, Behera PR, Sahajwalla V (2018) Thermal nanosizing: novel route to synthesize manganese oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles simultaneously from spent Zn–C battery. J Clean Prod 196:478–488

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fu J, Zhou Q, Liu J, Liu W, Wang T, Zhang Q, Jiang G (2008) High levels of heavy metals in rice (Oryza sativa L.) from a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential risk to human health. Chemosphere 71:1269–1275

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fu H, Wang M, Ho Y (2013) Mapping of drinking water research: a bibliometric analysis of research output during 1992–2011. Sci Total Environ 443:757–765

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garfield E (1972) Citation analysis as a tool in journal evaluation. Science 178:417–479

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garfield E (1979) Is citation analysis a legitimate evaluation tool? Scientometrics 1:359–375

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garfield E (1990) KeyWords Plus takes you beyond title words. Part 2. Expanded journal coverage for current contents on diskette includes social and behavioral sciences. Curr Contents 33:5–9

    Google Scholar 

  • Garfield E (2006) Citation indexes for science A new dimension in documentation through association of ideas. Int J Epidemiol 35:1123–1127

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garfield E (2007) The evolution of the Science Citation Index. Int Microbiol 10:65–69

    Google Scholar 

  • Ghosh B, Ghosh MK, Parhi P, Mukherjee PS, Mishra BK (2015) Waste printed circuit boards recycling: an extensive assessment of current status. J Clean Prod 94:5–19

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heacock M, Kelly CB, Asante KA, Birnbaum LS, Bergman AL, Bruné M, Buka I, Carpenter DO, Chen A, Huo X, Kamel M, Landrigan PJ, Magalini F, Diaz-Barriga F, Neira M, Omar M, Pascale A, Ruchirawat M, Sly L, Sly PD, Berg MV, Suk WA (2016) E-waste and harm to vulnerable populations: a growing global problem. Environ Health Perspect 124:550–555

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hirsch J (2005) An index to quantify an individuals scientific research output. Proc Natl Acad Sci 102:16569–16572

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ho YS, Satoh H, Lin SY (2010) Japanese lung cancer research trends and performance in Science Citation Index. Intern Med 49:2219–2228

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huo X, Peng L, Xu X, Zheng L, Qiu B, Qi Z, Zhang B, Han D, Piao Z (2007) Elevated blood lead levels of children in Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling town in China. Environ Health Perspect 115:1113–1117

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ikhlayel M (2018) An integrated approach to establish e-waste management systems for developing countries. J Clean Prod 170:119–130

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ilankoon IMSK, Ghorbani Y, Chong MN, Herath G, Moyo T, Petersen J (2018) E-waste in the international context—a review of trade flows, regulations, hazards, waste management strategies and technologies for value recovery. Waste Manag 82:258–275

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ilyas S, Lee JC, Chi RA (2013) Bioleaching of metals from electronic scrap and its potential for commercial exploitation. Hydrometallurgy 131–132:138–143

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ilyas S, Lee JC, Kim BS (2014) Bioremoval of heavy metals from recycling industry electronic waste by a consortium of moderate thermophiles: process development and optimization. J Clean Prod 70:194–202

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Innocenzi V, Michelis ID, Kopacek B, Vegliò F (2014) Yttrium recovery from primary and secondary sources: a review of main hydrometallurgical processes. Waste Manag 34:1237–1250

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jiupeng MA, Hui-zhen FU, Yuh-shan HO (2012) The top-cited wetland articles in science citation index expanded: characteristics and hotspots. Environ Earth Sci 70:1039–1046

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaffine D, O’Reilly P (2013) What have we learned about extended producer responsibility in the past decade? A survey of the recent EPR economic literature. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Available at: http://spot.colorado.edu/~daka9342/OECD_EPR_KO.pdf. Accessed 17 Sep 2018

  • Kiddee P, Naidu R, Wong MH (2013) Electronic waste management approaches: an overview. Waste Manag 33:1237–1250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar A, Dixit G (2018) Evaluating critical barriers to implementation of WEEE management using DEMATEL approach. Resour Conserv Recycl 131:101–121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Law RJ, Covaci A, Harrad S, Herzke D, Abdallah MAE, Femie K, Toms LML, Takigami H (2013) Levels and profiles of organochlorines and flame retardants in car and house dust from Kuwait and Pakistan: implication for human exposure via dust ingestion. Environ Int 55:55–62

    Google Scholar 

  • Law RJ, Covaci A, Harrad S, Herzke D, Abdallah MAE, Femie K, Toms LML, Takigami H (2014) Levels and trends of PBDEs and HBCDs in the global environment: Status at the end of 2012. Environ Int 65:147–158

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leung AOW, Luksemburg WJ, Wong AS, Wong MH (2007) Spatial distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil and combusted residue at Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site in southeast China. Environ Sci Technol 41:2730–2737

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li WL, Ma WL, Zhang ZF, Liu LY, Song WW, Jia HL, Ding YS, Nakata H, Minh NH, Sinha RK, Moon HB, Kannan K, Sverko E, Li YF (2017a) Occurrence and source effect of novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) in Soils from five Asian countries and their relationship with PBDEs. Environ Sci Technol 51:11126–11135

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li Y, Wu X, Song J, Li J, Shao Q, Cao N, Lu N, Guo Z (2017b) Reparation of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene by pyromellitic dianhydride: reparation performance evaluation and property analysis. Polymer 124:41–47

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li K, Rollins J, Yan E (2018) Web of science use in published research and review papers 1997–2017: a selective, dynamic, cross-domain, content-based analysis. Scientometrics 115:1–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lundgren K (2012) The global impact of e-waste: addressing the challenge. International Labour Organization, Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment (SafeWork), Sectoral Activities Department (SECTOR), Geneva

    Google Scholar 

  • Luo J, Cai L, Qi S, Wu J, Gu XWS (2017a) A multi-technique phytoremediation approach to purify metals contaminated soil from e-waste recycling site. J Environ Manag 204:17–22

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Luo J, Cai L, Qi S, Wu J, Gu XWS (2017b) Improvement effects of cytokinin on EDTA assisted phytoremediation and the associated environmental risks. Chemosphere 185:386–393

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mallampati SR, Lee BH, Mitoma Y, Simion C (2017) Selective sequential separation of ABS/HIPS and PVC from automobile and electronic waste shredder residue by hybrid nano-Fe/Ca/CaO assisted ozonisation process. Waste Manag 60:428–438

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maroufi S, Nekouei RK, Sahajwalla V (2018) A green route to synthesize Pr3+/Dy3+-doped Nd2O3 nanoreplicas from Nd–Fe–B magnets. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 6:3402–3410

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marques AC, Cabrera JM, Malfatti CF (2013) Printed circuit boards: a review on the perspective of sustainability. J Environ Manag 131:298–306

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Martin MZ, Fox RV, Miziolek AW, DeLucia FC, André N (2015) Spectral analysis of rare earth elements using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy next-generation spectroscopic technologies VIII series of books: proceedings of SPIE Vol 9482

  • Milanez DH, Schiavi MT, Amaral RM, Faria LIL, Gregolin JAR (2013) Development of carbon-based nanomaterials indicators using the analytical tools and data provided by the web of science database. Mater Res 16:1282–1293

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mnim Altwaiq A, Wolf M, Van Eldik R (2003) Extraction of brominated flame retardants from polymeric waste material using different solvents and supercritical carbon dioxide. Anal Chim Acta 491:111–123

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nekouei RK, Pahlevani F, Rajarao R, Golmohammadzadeh R, Sahajwalla V (2018) Direct transformation of waste printed circuit boards to nano-structured powders through mechanical alloying. Mater Des 141:26–36

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Neto GCO, Correia AJC, Schroeder AM (2017) Economic and environmental assessment of recycling and reuse of electronic waste: Multiple case studies in Brazil and Switzerland. Resour Conserv Recycl 127:29–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Noyons E, Moed H, Luwel M (1999) Combining mapping and citation analysis for evaluative bibliometric purposes: a bibliometric study. J Am Soc Inf Sci 50:115–131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • OECD (2016) Extended producer responsibility: updated guidance for efficient waste management. OECD publishing, Paris. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264256385-en

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Okubo Y (1997) Bibliometric indicators and analysis of research systems: methods and examples. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 1997/01. OECD Publishing, Paris

    Google Scholar 

  • Ongondo FO, Williams ID, Cherrett TJ (2011) How are WEEE doing? A global review of the management of electrical and electronic wastes. Waste Manag 31:714–730

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pohlein M, Bertran RU, Wolf M, Van Eldik R (2009) Preparation of reference materials for the determination of RoHS-relevant flame retardants in styrenic polymers. Anal Bioanal Chem 394:583–595

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rajarao R, Ferreira R, Sadi SHF, Khanna R, Sahajwalla V (2014) Synthesis of silicon carbide nanoparticles by using electronic waste as a carbon source. Mater Lett 120:65–68

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Robinson BH (2009) E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts. Sci Total Environ 408:183–191

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Romanelli JP, Fujimoto JT, Ferreira MD, Milanez DH (2018) Assessing ecological restoration as a research topic using bibliometric indicators. Ecol Eng 120:311–320

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roth T, Bertran RU, Latza A, Andörfer-Lang K, Hügelschäffer C, Pöhlein M, Puchta R, Placht C, Maid H, Bauer W, Van Eldik R (2015) Preparation of candidate reference materials for the determination of phosphorus containing flame retardants in styrene-based polymers. Anal Bioanal Chem 407:3023–3034

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schlummer M (2014) Recycling of postindustrial and postconsumer plastics containing flame retardants. Polym Green Flame Retard 25:869–889

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sommer EJ, Rich JT (2001) Application of Raman spectroscopy to identification and sorting of post-consumer plastics for recycling. U.S. Patent 6313423

  • Song QB, Li JH (2014) A systematic review of the human body burden of e-waste exposure in China. Environ Int 68:82–93

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sperança MA, Virgilio A, Pereira-Filho ER, Aquino FWB (2018) Determination of elemental content in solder mask samples used in printed circuit boards using different spectroanalytical techniques. Appl Spectrosc 72:1205–1214

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stepputat M, Noll R (2003) On-line detection of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants in technical polymers with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry. Appl Opt 42:6210–6220

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sthiannopkao S, Wong MH (2013) Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: initiatives, practices, and consequences. Sci Total Environ 463–464:1147–1153

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stindt D, Sahamie R (2014) Review of research on closed loop supply chain management in the process industry. Flex Serv Manuf J 26:268–293

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ştirbu S, Thirion P, Schmitz S, Haesbroeck G, Greco N (2015) The utility of Google Scholar when searching geographical literature: comparison with three commercial bibliographic databases. J Acad Librariansh 41:322–329

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tokumaru T, Ozaki H, Onwona-Agyeman S, Ofosu-Anim J, Watanabe I (2017) Determination of the extent of trace metals pollution in soils, sediments and human hair at e-waste recycling site in Ghana. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 73:377–390

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Truc NTT, Lee BK (2017) Selective separation of ABS/PC containing BFRs from ABSs mixture of WEEE by developing hydrophilicity with ZnO coating under microwave treatment. J Hazard Mater 329:84–91

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tue NM, Goto A, Takahashi S, Itai T, Asante KA, Nomiyama K, Tanabe S, Kunisue T (2017) Soil contamination by halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from open burning of e-waste in Agbogbloshie (Accra, Ghana). J Mater Cycles Waste Manage 19:1324–1332

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tuncuka A, Stazib V, Akcila A, Yazicic EY, Devecic H (2012) Aqueous metal recovery techniques from e-scrap: hydrometallurgy in recycling. Miner Eng 25:28–37

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • US EPA (2016) Electronic products generation and recycling in the United States, 2013, 2014. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-12/documents/electronic_products_generation_and_recycling_2013_2014_11282016_508.pdf. Accessed 11 February 2019

  • Van Eck NJ, Waltman L (2010) Software survey: VOSviewer, a computer program for bibliometric mapping. Scientometrics 84:523–538

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Venkatesan P, Hoogerstraete TV, Hennebel T, Binnemans K, Sietsma J, Yang Y (2018) Selective electrochemical extraction of REEs from NdFeB magnet waste at room temperature. Green Chem 20:1065–1073

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang LL, Hou ML, An J, Zhong YF, Wang XT, Wang YJ, Wu MH, Bi XH, Sheng GY, Fu JM (2011) The cytotoxic and genetoxic effects of dust and soil samples from e-waste recycling area on L02 cells. Toxicol Ind Health 27:831–839

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang C, Wang H, Liu Q, Fu J, Liu Y (2014) Separation of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene waste plastics by froth flotation combined with ammonia pretreatment. Waste Manag 34:2656–2661

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Widmer R, Oswald-Krapf H, Sinha-Khetriwal D, Schnellmann M, Boni H (2005) Global perspectives on e-waste. Environ Impact Assess 25:436–458

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilford BH, Shoeib M, Harner T, Zhu JP, Jones KC (2005) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor dust in Ottawa, Canada: implications for sources and exposure. Environ Sci Technol 39:7027–7035

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wold S (1991) Chemometrics, why, what and where to next? J Pharm Biomed Anal 9:589–596

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wong MH, Wu SC, Deng WJ, Yu XZ, Luo Q, Leung AOW, Wong CSC, Luksemburg WJ, Wong AS (2007) Export of toxic chemicals—a review of the case of uncontrolled electronic-waste recycling. Environ Pollut 149:131–140

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xia MC, Wang YP, Peng TJ, Shen L, Yu RL, Liu YD, Chen M, Li JK, Wu XL, Zeng WM (2017) Recycling of metals from pretreated waste printed circuit boards effectively in stirred tank reactor by a moderately thermophilic culture. J Biosci Bioeng 123:714–721

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yamasue E, Nakajima K, Daigo I, Hashimoto S, Okumura H, Ishihara KN (2007) Evaluation of the potential amounts of dissipated rare metals from WEEE in Japan. Mater Trans 48:2353–2357

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang L, Wang M, Hu J, Ho Y (2010) A review of published wetland research, 1991–2008: ecological engineering and ecosystem restoration. Ecol Eng 36:973–980

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang Q, Ye J, Chen J, Xu H, Wang C, Zhao M (2014) Risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals in soils of an abandoned e-waste site in China. Environ Pollut 185:258–265

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang S, Ding Y, Liu B, Chang C (2017) Supply and demand of some critical metals and present status of their recycling in WEEE. Waste Manag 65:113–127

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhi W, Ji G (2012) Constructed wetlands, 1991–2011: a review of research development, current trends, and future directions. Sci Total Environ 441:19–27

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zupic I, Cater T (2015) Bibliometric methods in management and organization. Organ Res Methods 18:429–472

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

The authors are grateful to the Research Foundation of São Paulo (Fapesp, grants 2016/17304-0 and 2016/01513-0), which supported this study and to the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq for financially supporting this work (Projects 401074/2014-5, 305637/2015-0). This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Edenir Rodrigues Pereira-Filho.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 6774 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Andrade, D.F., Romanelli, J.P. & Pereira-Filho, E.R. Past and emerging topics related to electronic waste management: top countries, trends, and perspectives. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 17135–17151 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05089-y

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05089-y

Keywords

  • E-waste
  • WEEE
  • International waste management
  • VOSviewer
  • Bibliometric mapping
  • Bibliometric indicator